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The coordination chemistry of f-block elements (lanthanide and actinide) in molten salts has become a resounding topic in view of its great importance to the research and development (R&D) of molten salt reactors and pyroprocessing. In this Review article, a general overview of the coordination chemistry of f-block elements in molten salts is provided including past achievements and recent advances. Particular emphases are placed on the oxidation state, speciation, and solution structure of f-block metal ions in molten salts, as well as their relationships with the salt composition. Furthermore, this review briefly discusses the spectroscopic and theoretical methods that complement each other in revealing the coordination properties.  相似文献   
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We study the existence of a time‐periodic solution with pointwise decay properties to the Navier–Stokes equation in the whole space. We show that if the time‐periodic external force is sufficiently small in an appropriate sense, then there exists a time‐periodic solution { u , p } of the Navier–Stokes equation such that | ? j u ( t , x ) | = O ( | x | 1 ? n ? j ) and | ? j p ( t , x ) | = O ( | x | ? n ? j ) ( j = 0 , 1 , ) uniformly in t R as | x | . Our solution decays faster than the time‐periodic Stokes fundamental solution and the faster decay of its spatial derivatives of higher order is also described.  相似文献   
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An efficient edge based data structure has been developed in order to implement an unstructured vertex based finite volume algorithm for the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations on hybrid meshes. In the present approach, the data structure is tailored to meet the requirements of the vertex based algorithm by considering data access patterns and cache efficiency. The required data are packed and allocated in a way that they are close to each other in the physical memory. Therefore, the proposed data structure increases cache performance and improves computation time. As a result, the explicit flow solver indicates a significant speed up compared to other open-source solvers in terms of CPU time. A fully implicit version has also been implemented based on the PETSc library in order to improve the robustness of the algorithm. The resulting algebraic equations due to the compressible Navier–Stokes and the one equation Spalart–Allmaras turbulence equations are solved in a monolithic manner using the restricted additive Schwarz preconditioner combined with the FGMRES Krylov subspace algorithm. In order to further improve the computational accuracy, the multiscale metric based anisotropic mesh refinement library PyAMG is used for mesh adaptation. The numerical algorithm is validated for the classical benchmark problems such as the transonic turbulent flow around a supercritical RAE2822 airfoil and DLR-F6 wing-body-nacelle-pylon configuration. The efficiency of the data structure is demonstrated by achieving up to an order of magnitude speed up in CPU times.  相似文献   
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Prediction of drag reduction effect caused by pulsating pipe flows is examined using machine learning. First, a large set of flow field data is obtained experimentally by measuring turbulent pipe flows with various pulsation patterns. Consequently, more than 7000 waveforms are applied, obtaining a maximum drag reduction rate and maximum energy saving rate of 38.6% and 31.4%, respectively. The results indicate that the pulsating flow effect can be characterized by the pulsation period and pressure gradient during acceleration and deceleration. Subsequently, two machine learning models are tested to predict the drag reduction rate. The results confirm that the machine learning model developed for predicting the time variation of the flow velocity and differential pressure with respect to the pump voltage can accurately predict the nonlinearity of pressure gradients. Therefore, using this model, the drag reduction effect can be estimated with high accuracy.  相似文献   
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To achieve efficient proton pumping in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the protein must be tightly coupled to the retinal to rapidly convert retinal isomerization into protein structural rearrangements. Methyl group dynamics of bR embedded in lipid nanodiscs were determined in the dark-adapted state, and were found to be mostly well ordered at the cytosolic side. Methyl groups in the M145A mutant of bR, which displays only 10 % residual proton pumping activity, are less well ordered, suggesting a link between side-chain dynamics on the cytosolic side of the bR cavity and proton pumping activity. In addition, slow conformational exchange, attributed to low frequency motions of aromatic rings, was indirectly observed for residues on the extracellular side of the bR cavity. This may be related to reorganization of the water network. These observations provide a detailed picture of previously undescribed equilibrium dynamics on different time scales for ground-state bR.  相似文献   
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