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1.
In this paper we consider aggregate Malmquist productivity index measures which allow inputs to be reallocated within the group (when in output orientation). This merges the single period aggregation results allowing input reallocation of Nesterenko and Zelenyuk (2007) with the aggregate Malmquist productivity index results of Zelenyuk (2006) to determine aggregate Malmquist productivity indexes that are justified by economic theory, consistent with previous aggregation results, and which maintain analogous decompositions to the original measures. Such measures are of direct relevance to firms or countries who have merged (making input reallocation possible), allowing them to measure potential productivity gains and how these have been realised (or not) over time.  相似文献   
2.
Chromatographic reactors are based on coupling chemical reactions with chromatographic separation in fixed-beds. Temperature and flow rate are important parameters for the performance of such reactors. Temperature affects mainly adsorption, chemical equilibria, mass transfer and reaction kinetics, whereas flow rate influences residence time and dispersion. In order to evaluate the mentioned effects, the hydrolysis reactions of methyl formate (MF) and methyl acetate (MA) were chosen as case studies. These reactions were performed experimentally in a lab-scale fixed-bed chromatographic reactor packed with a strong acidic ion exchange resin. The chosen reactions can be considered to represent a relative fast (MF) and a relative slow (MA) reaction. The processes which take place inside the reactor were described and simulated using an isothermal equilibrium dispersive model. The essential model parameters were determined experimentally at different temperatures and flow rates. The performance of the chromatographic reactor was evaluated at several discrete constant temperature levels by quantifying product purity, productivity and yield. The work provides insight regarding the influence of temperature and flow rate on values of the model parameters and the performance criteria.  相似文献   
3.
The dynamics of price, quality and productivity improvement decisions   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Although quality has received significant attention during the last decades and its economic benefits are beyond any doubt, lots of questions have remained unanswered as to how much, when, and in what to invest to maintain sustainable competitive advantage. A model is introduced here to guide a firm in addressing these questions. The firm produces a single product and operates in a market where monopolistic competition is effective. Demand for the product in the industry depends on both price and performance quality. Increasing productivity knowledge decreases unit production cost, but demand for the company’s product decreases over time, as competitors will be able to offer products with similar performance. Productivity and quality knowledge can be developed through induced and autonomous learning in order to strengthen company position. The paper provides an optimal control formulation of the problem and develops necessary conditions for optimality and characterizes the dynamics of optimal price, quality and investment decisions.  相似文献   
4.
We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.  相似文献   
5.
The present paper concentrates on conditions that are necessary and sufficient for M-matrices to be positive definite. The obtained results can be used in the analysis of productivity of the Leontief input-output model.  相似文献   
6.
Managing knowledge based resource capabilities has become very important in recent years and during a finite horizon it seems to be reasonable to develop the capabilities intensively at the beginning as one can utilize those over a longer period of time. With the help of multi-period models we check the validity of this idea and characterize the dynamics of development activities. The paper identifies the factors that shape these dynamics and from the behavior of these factors we conclude when the dynamics can be increasing or decreasing. We point out that in stable environment there is tendency for decreasing dynamics but future expectations can significantly modify this outcome. Relationships between the successful or less successful implementation of a business strategy and the dynamics of improvement activities are highlighted as well. For specific model structures explicit solutions are derived.  相似文献   
7.
Batching plays an important role in performance evaluation of manufacturing systems. Three types of batching are commonly seen: transfer batches, parallel batches and serial batches. To model the batching behavior correctly, a comprehensive classification of batching is proposed. Eight types of batching behavior are classified and corresponding queueing models are given. The newly proposed models are validated by simulation.  相似文献   
8.
Parameter study of electrospinning of polyamide-6   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Importance of different solution and process parameters were evaluated in multi-nozzle electrospinning of polyamide-6. We were interested in how those parameters affect firstly on fibre diameters and fibre diameter distribution and secondly on production rate and disturbances of the process. The trial series was planned using orthogonal experimental design. Altogether eight parameters having three or two levels each were chosen for this study. The chosen solution parameters were polymer grade, viscosity of solution, salt content and solvent grade and process parameters, voltage, distance, nozzle size and feeding pressure of solution. This study was performed using continuous electrospinning equipment consisting of multiple nozzles and horizontal electric field. Literature findings about the influences of certain variables are often contradictory. These contradictions and their possible causes were discussed.  相似文献   
9.
This paper proposes a two-dimensional efficiency decomposition (2DED) of profitability for a production system to account for the demand effect observed in productivity analysis. The first dimension identifies four components of efficiency: capacity design, demand generation, operations, and demand consumption, using Network Data Envelopment Analysis (Network DEA). The second dimension decomposes the efficiency measures and integrates them into a profitability efficiency framework. Thus, each component’s profitability change can be analyzed based on technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change and allocative efficiency change. An empirical study based on data from 2006 to 2008 for the US airline industry finds that the regress of productivity is mainly caused by a demand fluctuation in 2007-2008 rather than technical regression in production capabilities.  相似文献   
10.
Firms face a continuous process of technological and environmental changes that requires them to make managerial decisions in a dynamic context. However, costs and constraints prevent firms from making instant adjustments towards optimal conditions and may cause inefficiency to persist in time. We propose a dynamic inefficiency specification that captures differences in the adjustment costs among firms and non-persistent effects of inefficiency heterogeneity. The model is fitted to a ten year sample of Colombian banks. The new specification improves model fit and have effects on efficiency estimations. Overall, Colombian banks present high inefficiency persistence but important differences between institutions are found. In particular, merged banks present low adjustment costs that allow them to recover rapidly efficiency losses derived from merging processes.  相似文献   
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