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1.
This paper studied the cost allocation for the unfunded liability in a defined benefit pension scheme incorporating the stochastic phenomenon of its returns. In the recent literature represented by Cairns and Parker [Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 21 (1997) 43], Haberman [Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 11 (1992) 179; Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 13 (1993) 45; Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 14 (1994) 219; Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 14 (1997) 127], Owadally and Haberman [North American Actuarial Journal 3 (1999) 105], the fund level is modeled based on the plan dynamics and the returns are generated through several stochastic processes to reflect the current realistic economic perspective to see how the contribution changed as the cost allocation period increased. In this study, we generalize the previous constant value assumption in cost amortization by modeling the returns and valuation rates simultaneously. Taylor series expansion is employed to approximate the unconditional and conditional moments of the plan contribution and fund level. Hence the stability of the plan contribution and the fund size under different allocation periods could be estimated, which provide valuable information adding to the previous works.  相似文献   
2.
In a financial market with one riskless asset and n risky assets whose prices are lognormal, we solve in a closed form the problem of a pension fund maximizing the expected CRRA utility of its surplus till the (stochastic) death time of a representative agent. We consider a unique asset allocation problem for both accumulation and decumulation phases. The optimal investment in the risky assets must decrease during the first phase and increase during the second one. We accordingly suggest it is not optimal to manage the two phases separately, and outsourcing of allocation decisions should be avoided in both phases. JEL: G23, G11 MSC 2000: 62P05, 91B28, 91B30, 91B70, 93E20  相似文献   
3.
Financial advisers have developed standardized payout strategies to help Baby Boomers manage their money in their golden years. Prominent among these are phased withdrawal plans offered by mutual funds including the “self-annuitization” or default rules encouraged under US tax law, and fixed payout annuities offered by insurers. Using a utility-based framework, and taking account of stochastic capital markets and uncertain lifetimes, we first evaluate these rules on a stand-alone basis for a wide range of risk aversion. Next, we permit the consumer to integrate these standardized payout strategies at retirement and compare the results. We show that integrated strategies can enhance retirees’ well-being by 25%-50% for low/moderate levels of risk aversion when compared to full annuitization at retirement. Finally, we examine how welfare changes if the consumer is permitted to switch to a fixed annuity at an optimal point after retirement. This affords the retiree the chance to benefit from the equity premium when younger, and exploit the mortality credit in later life. For moderately risk-averse retirees, the optimal switching age lies between 80 and 85.  相似文献   
4.
In this paper we study the problem of simultaneous minimization of risks, and maximization of the terminal value of expected funds assets in a stochastic defined benefit aggregated pension plan. The risks considered are the solvency risk, measured as the variance of the terminal fund’s level, and the contribution risk, in the form of a running cost associated to deviations from the evolution of the stochastic normal cost. The problem is formulated as a bi-objective stochastic problem of mean–variance and it is solved with dynamic programming techniques. We find the efficient frontier and we show that the optimal portfolio depends linearly on the supplementary cost of the fund, plus an additional term due to the random evolution of benefits.  相似文献   
5.
In defined benefit pension plans, allowances are independent from the financial performance of the fund. And the sponsoring firm pays regularly contributions to limit deviations of fund assets from the mathematical reserve, necessary for covering the promised liabilities. This research paper proposes a method to optimize the timing and size of contributions, in a regime switching economy. The model takes into consideration important market frictions, like transactions costs, late payments and illiquidity. The problem is solved numerically using dynamic programming and impulse control techniques. Our approach is based on parallel grids, with trinomial links, discretizing the asset return in each economic regime.  相似文献   
6.
A pension plan is said to be exactly vested if it provides in addition to the benefit available upon retirement, a benefit, upon termination for any cause prior to retirement, which is exactly equivalent to the actuarial accured liability for the terminating participant.The concept of exact vesting has simple application in defined contribution plans such as those of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association. It is also feasible to develop the exact vesting concept for a defined benefit plan which uses an individual type of actuarial cost method. An exactly vested plan would have more individual equity than is available under customary vesting and early retirement provisions of defined benefit plans.In this paper, theory is developed for an exactly vested model plan in parallel to the theory for a pure pension model plan discussed in previous papers on pension funding dynamics.  相似文献   
7.
The authors follow up some previous work on the dynamics of pension funding by three notes. The first of these concerns contribution rates consisting of the normal cost plus a generalized amortization method for unfunded supplemental present value (actuarial accrued liability). The second note examines aggregate cost funding for active members when there exist consistent difference between the assumed and the actual rates of interest and of growth. The third note explores the operation of a variable annuity system in the context of our general model for pension funding dynamics.  相似文献   
8.
In this paper, we will prove that the random version of Fan's Theorem [6, Theorem 2] is true for a random hemicompact 1-set-contractive map defined on a closed ball, a sphere and an annulus in cones. This class of random 1-set-contractive map includes random condensing maps, random continuous semicontractive maps, random LANE maps, random nonexpansive maps and others. As applications of our theorems, some random fixed point theorems of non-self-maps are proved under various well-known boundary conditions. Our results are generalizations, improvements or stochastic versions of the recent results obtained by many authors  相似文献   
9.
Motivated by declining support for mandatory participation in pension arrangements, we explore whether the intergenerational risk-sharing benefits that these arrangements offer suffice to ensure their survival when participation becomes voluntary. Funded systems with asset buffers are particularly interesting since these buffers make contributions more sensitive to financial returns. Equilibria are characterised by thresholds on the young’s willingness to contribute. Standard values for our parameters yield two such equilibria; only the one with the higher threshold is consistent with the initial young being prepared to start the system. An advancement relative to the related literature is that the equilibria feature a non-zero probability of collapse. Finally, we explore the social welfare maximising values for the pension parameters for various levels of uncertainty and risk aversion.  相似文献   
10.
In this paper we study the optimal management of an aggregated pension fund of defined benefit type, in the presence of a stochastic interest rate. We suppose that the sponsor can invest in a savings account, in a risky stock and in a bond with the aim of minimizing deviations of the unfunded actuarial liability from zero along a finite time horizon. We solve the problem by means of optimal stochastic control techniques and analyze the influence on the optimal solution of some of the parameters involved in the model.  相似文献   
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