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**排序方式：**共有4338条查询结果，搜索用时 15 毫秒

1.

W.H. Lim M.J. Lawrence 《Colloids and surfaces. A, Physicochemical and engineering aspects》2004,250(1-3):449-457

Photon correlation spectroscopy and freeze-fracture electron microscopy have been used to determine the ability of a range of micelle-forming, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monoesters (Tweens) to solubilise vesicles prepared from phosphatidylcholines of different acyl chain lengths and degrees of saturation with a view to rationalising (in terms of their membrane toxicity) which of the micelle-forming surfactants to use as drug delivery vehicles. The phosphatidylcholines used were dimyristoyl-, dipalmitoyl-, distearoyl- and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC, DPPC, DSPC and DOPC, respectively) while the nonionic polyoxyethylene sorbitan monoesters studied were polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), a 9:1 weight ratio mixture of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate and monostearate (Tween 40), a 1:1 weight ratio mixture of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate and monostearate (Tween 60), and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80). The ability of the Tween micelles to solubilise phospholipid vesicles was found to depend both upon the length of the surfactant acyl chain and the length of the acyl chains of the phospholipid comprising the vesicle. Vesicles composed of long saturated diacyl chain phospholipids, namely DSPC and DPPC, were the most resistant to solubilisation, while those prepared from the shorter acyl chained DMPC were more readily solubilised. In terms of their solubilisation behaviour, vesicles made from phospholipids containing long, unsaturated acyl chains, namely DOPC behaved more akin to those vesicles prepared from DMPC. None of the Tween surfactants were effective at solubilising vesicles prepared from DPPC or DSPC. In contrast, there were clear differences in the ability of the various surfactants to solubilise vesicles prepared from DMPC and DOPC, in that micelles formed from Tween 20 were the most effective solubilising agent while those formed by Tween 60 were the least effective. As a consequence of these observations it was considered that Tween 60 was the surfactant least likely to cause membrane damage in vivo and, therefore, is the most suitable surfactant for use as a micellar drug delivery vehicle. 相似文献

2.

Raymond Mackay Jie Zhang Qi Wu Yuzhuo Li 《Colloids and surfaces. A, Physicochemical and engineering aspects》2004,250(1-3):343-348

The longitudinal relaxation times (

*T*_{1}) of water in concentrated silica and alumina slurries were measured as a function of solids content. It was shown that the results could be fit very well with a two-phase fast-exchange model between free and surface-bound water. As expected, values of*T*_{1}for bound water were in the order of 20–2000 times lower than that for free water, indicating a higher effective viscosity of the surface-bound water. The strength of the interaction depended on the particular surface, and all of the aluminas examined interacted more strongly with water than the two silicas studied, which themselves differed considerably. The chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) removal rate of tantalum by silica slurries was shown to be directly correlated with the interaction parameters, derived from the NMR relation times rather than with total surface hydroxyl group concentration. 相似文献3.

Becky Lavi Abraham Marmur 《Colloids and surfaces. A, Physicochemical and engineering aspects》2004,250(1-3):409-414

An equation for the kinetics of partial drop spreading is proposed. This equation was empirically derived from experimental data for the spreading kinetics of partially wetting liquids in terms of the wet area versus time. The equation has the form of an exponential power law (EPL), and transforms into the well-known power law for complete wetting, when the equilibrium contact angle approaches zero. The EPL fits very well available experimental data. To lend additional support to the validity of this generalized equation, it will be demonstrated that when it is transformed to present the dynamic contact angle (DCA), it fits very well DCA experimental data for other wetting processes, such as capillary flow and tape coating. 相似文献

4.

This research extends previous work with dynamic models to manage groundwater quality by using the consumptive nitrate use rate instead of the nitrate application rate. The analysis indicates that misspecification results in overestimation of economic benefits, and supra-optimum nitrogen fertilizer application rates and groundwater nitrate stocks at a steady state. 相似文献

5.

Most adhesives and binders, including bitumen for asphalt mixture production, are presently produced from petrochemicals after
the refining of crude oil. The fact that crude oil reserves are a finite resource means that in the future, it may become
necessary to produce these materials from alternative and probably renewable sources. Suitable resources of this kind may
include polysaccharides, plant oils and proteins. This paper deals with the synthesis of polymer binders from monomers that
could, in future, be derived from renewable resources. These binders consist of polyethyl acrylate (PEA) of different molecular
weight, polymethyl acrylate (PMA) and polybutyl acrylate (PBA), which were synthesised from ethyl acrylate, methyl acrylate
and butyl acrylate, respectively, by atom transfer radical polymerisation. The rheological properties of these binders were
determined by means of oscillatory testing using a dynamic shear rheometer and combinations of stress/strain, temperature
and frequency sweeps. The results indicate that PEA can be produced to have rheological properties similar to that of ‘soft’
100/150 penetration grade bitumen, PMA with similar rheological properties to that of ‘hard’ 10/20 penetration grade bitumen,
while PBA, due to its highly viscous nature and low dynamic moduli, cannot be used on its own as a binder. The synthetic polymers
were found to be thermo-rheologically simple, and the shift factors, used to produce the dynamic moduli master curves, were
found to fit an Arrhenius function. 相似文献

6.

7.

This paper provides answers to several questions raised by V. Klee regarding the efficacy of Mattheiss' algorithm for finding all vertices of convex polytopes. Several results relating to the expected properties of polytopes are given which indicate that

*n*-polytopes defined by large numbers of constraints are difficult to obtain by random processes, the expected value of the number of vertices of polytope is considerably less than Klee's least upper bound the expected performance of Mattheiss' algorithm is far better than Klee's upper bound would suggest. 相似文献8.

可达性是动态系统的重要性质之一。本文讨论离散事件动态系统的可达性,给出了系统完全可达的充要条件,得到了利用系统的特征矩阵判断系统可达性的判据,证明了系统可按可达性进行分解、状态反馈不影响系统可达性等结论,还进一步讨论了一类流水线生产加工系统的可达性,本文的结果对于这类系统的分析和控制是有意义的。 相似文献

9.

We consider two problems: given a collection of

*n*fat objects in a fixed dimension, (1) (*packing*) find the maximum subcollection of pairwise disjoint objects, and (2) (*piercing*) find the minimum point set that intersects every object. Recently, Erlebach, Jansen, and Seidel gave a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for the packing problem, based on a shifted hierarchical subdivision method. Using shifted quadtrees, we describe a similar algorithm for packing but with a smaller time bound. Erlebach et al.'s algorithm requires polynomial space. We describe a different algorithm, based on geometric separators, that requires only linear space. This algorithm can also be applied to piercing, yielding the first PTAS for that problem. 相似文献10.

An Application of Branch and Cut to Open Pit Mine Scheduling

**总被引：5，自引：0，他引：5**The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and management. Declining trends in average ore grades, increasing mining costs and environmental considerations will ensure that this situation will remain in the foreseeable future. The operation and management of a large open pit mine having a life of several years is an enormous and complex task. Though a number of optimization techniques have been successfully applied to resolve some important problems, the problem of determining an optimal production schedule over the life of the deposit is still very much unresolved. In this paper we will critically examine the techniques that are being used in the mining industry for production scheduling indicating their limitations. In addition, we present a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling problems along with a Branch and Cut solution strategy. Computational results for practical sized problems are discussed. 相似文献