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1.
Different strategies for the preparation of efficient and robust immobilized biocatalysts are here reviewed. Different physico-chemical approaches are discussed.i.- The stabilization of enzyme by any kind of immobilization on pre-existing porous supports.ii.- The stabilization of enzymes by multipoint covalent attachment on support surfaces.iii.- Additional stabilization of immobilized-stabilized enzyme by physical or chemical modification with polymers.These three strategies can be easily developed when enzymes are immobilized in pre-existing porous supports. In addition to that, these immobilized-stabilized derivatives are optimal to develop enzyme reaction engineering and reactor engineering. Stabilizations ranging between 1000 and 100,000 folds regarding diluted soluble enzymes are here reported.  相似文献   
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It is important to determine the cause of death in the case of asphyxia. However, it is difficult to conclude death by asphyxia, especially when the deceased has underlying heart disease, because there are often no specific and representative corpse signs for both asphyxia and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential of metabolomics to discriminate asphyxia from SCD as the cause of death. A total of thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were used to construct models of asphyxia, SCD (interfering cause of death), and cervical dislocation (control). Untargeted and widely targeted metabolomics approaches were used to obtain rat pulmonary metabolic profiles in this study. First, the metabolic alterations resulting from asphyxia were explored. There were significant changes found in carbohydrate metabolism, the endocrine system, and the sensory system. Second, we screened potential biomarkers and built classification models to determine the cause of death. Moreover, some biomarkers remained differentiated at 24 h and 48 h postmortem, so the cause of death could still be determined after death. This study showed the application potential of metabolomics to investigate the metabolic changes occurring in the process of death, as well as to determine the cause of death on the basis of metabolic differences even after death.  相似文献   
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Carotenoids are an essential component of cashew and can be used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, natural pigment, food additives, among other applications. The present work focuses on optimizing and comparing conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. Every optimization step took place with a 1:1 (w:w) mixture of yellow and red cashew apples lyophilized and ground in a cryogenic mill. A Simplex-centroid design was applied for both methods, and the solvents acetone, methanol, ethanol, and petroleum ether were evaluated. After choosing the extractor solvent, a central composite design was applied to optimize the sample mass (59–201 mg) and extraction time (6–34 min). The optimum conditions for the extractor solvent were 38% acetone, 30% ethanol, and 32% petroleum ether for CE and a mixture of 44% acetone and 56% methanol for UAE. The best experimental conditions for UAE were a sonication time of 19 min and a sample mass of 153 mg, while the CE was 23 min and 136 mg. Comparing red and yellow cashews, red cashews showed a higher carotenoid content in both methodologies. The UAE methodology was ca. 21% faster, presented a more straightforward composition of extracting solution, showed an average yield of superior carotenoid content in all samples compared to CE. Therefore, UAE has demonstrated a simple, efficient, fast, low-cost adjustment methodology and a reliable alternative for other applications involving these bioactive compounds in the studied or similar matrix.  相似文献   
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Here we propose and analyze a mathematical model that aims to describe the marble sulphation process occurring in a given material. The model accounts for rugosity as well as for damaging effects. This model is characterized by some technical difficulties that seem hard to overcome from a theoretical viewpoint. Therefore, we introduce some physically reasonable modifications in order to establish the existence of a suitable notion of solution on a given time interval. Numerical simulations are presented and discussed, also in view of further research.  相似文献   
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Given a graph sequence denote by T3(Gn) the number of monochromatic triangles in a uniformly random coloring of the vertices of Gn with colors. In this paper we prove a central limit theorem (CLT) for T3(Gn) with explicit error rates, using a quantitative version of the martingale CLT. We then relate this error term to the well-known fourth-moment phenomenon, which, interestingly, holds only when the number of colors satisfies . We also show that the convergence of the fourth moment is necessary to obtain a Gaussian limit for any , which, together with the above result, implies that the fourth-moment condition characterizes the limiting normal distribution of T3(Gn), whenever . Finally, to illustrate the promise of our approach, we include an alternative proof of the CLT for the number of monochromatic edges, which provides quantitative rates for the results obtained in [7].  相似文献   
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