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In the present research, field-amplified sample injection–CZE (FASI–CZE) coupled with a diode array detector was established to determine trace level sulfa antibiotic. Sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfisoxazole were selected as analytes for the experiments. The background electrolyte solution consisted of 70.0 mmol/L borax and 60.0 mmol/L boric acid (including 10% methanol, pH 9.1). The plug was 2.5 mmol/L borax, which was injected into the capillary at a pressure of 0.5 psi for 5 s. Then the sample was injected into the capillary at an injection voltage of –10 kV for 20 s. The electrophoretic separation was carried out under a voltage of +19 kV. The capillary temperature was maintained at 20˚C throughout the analysis, and six sulfonamides were completely separated within 35 min. Compared with pressure injection-CZE, the sensitivity of FASI-CZE was increased by 6.25–10.0 times, and the LODs were reduced from 0.2–0.5 to 0.02–0.05 μg/mL. The method was applied to the determination of sulfonamides in river water and particulate matter samples. The recoveries were 78.59–106.59%. The intraday and interday precisions were 2.89–7.35% and 2.77–7.09%, respectively. This provides a simpler and faster method for the analysis of sulfa antibiotic residues in environmental samples.  相似文献   
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《中国化学快报》2020,31(12):3183-3189
Engineered nanomaterials have attracted significantly attention as one of the most promising antimicrobial agents for against multidrug resistant infections. The toxicological responses of nanomaterials are closely related to their physicochemical properties, and establishment of a structure-activity relationship for nanomaterials at the nano-bio interface is of great significance for deep understanding antibacterial toxicity mechanisms of nanomaterials and designing safer antibacterial nanomaterials. In this study, the antibacterial behaviors of well-defined crystallographic facets of a series of Au nanocrystals, including {100}-facet cubes, {110}-facet rhombic dodecahedra, {111}-facet octahedra, {221}-facet trisoctahedra and {720}-facet concave cubes, was investigated, using the model bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. We find that Au nanocrystals display substantial facet-dependent antibacterial activities. The low-index facets of cubes, octahedra, and rhombic dodecahedra show considerable antibacterial activity, whereas the high-index facets of trisoctahedra and concave cubes remained inert under biological conditions. This result is in stark contrast to the previous paradigm that the high-index facets were considered to have higher bioactivity as compared with low-index facets. The antibacterial mechanism studies have shown that the facet-dependent antibacterial behaviors of Au nanocrystals are mainly caused by differential bacterial membrane damage as well as inhibition of cellular enzymatic activity and energy metabolism. The faceted Au nanocrystals are unique in that they do not induce generation of reactive oxygen species, as validated for most antibiotics and antimicrobial nanostructures. Our findings may provide a deeper understanding of facet-dependent toxicological responses and suggest the complexities of the nanomaterial-cell interactions, shedding some light on the development of high performance Au nanomaterials-based antibacterial therapeutics.  相似文献   
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It is known that a distance-regular graph with valency k at least three admits at most two Qpolynomial structures. We show that all distance-regular graphs with diameter four and valency at least three admitting two Q-polynomial structures are either dual bipartite or almost dual bipartite. By the work of Dickie(1995) this implies that any distance-regular graph with diameter d at least four and valency at least three admitting two Q-polynomial structures is, provided it is not a Hadamard graph, either the cube H(d, 2)with d even, the half cube 1/2H(2d + 1, 2), the folded cube?H(2d + 1, 2), or the dual polar graph on [2A2d-1(q)]with q 2 a prime power.  相似文献   
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Alkynes cycloaddition reactions are powerful tools for constructing cyclic molecules with optimal atom efficiency, but these reactions cannot proceed at ambient temperature without transition-metal catalysts. In this work, a heterobimetallic complex featuring an Nb–Fe triple bond, Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3, has been evaluated as the potential catalyst for acetylene cycloaddition, using density functional theory. The calculated results show that the singlet-state (i.e. ground-state) Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3 can be applied to benzene synthesis, but is not suitable for cyclobutadiene. Benzene can be obtained easily at room temperature and is the unique product on the singlet potential surface. The irradiation of infrared-red light can drive the excitation of singlet Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3 to its triplet state. Both benzene and cyclobutadiene can be formed on the triplet reaction potential surface due to their low energy barriers. Therefore, Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3 is a potential high reactivity heterobimetallic catalyst for the cyclotrimerization of alkynes. In the reaction process, the catalytic active site of Nb(iPrNPMe2)3Fe–PMe3 moves from niobium to iron.  相似文献   
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Ziritaxestat is a first-in-class autotoxin inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) method for the determination of ziritaxestat in rat plasma. The plasma sample was deproteinated using acetonitrile and then separated on an Acquity BEH C18 column with water containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase, which was delivered at 0.4 ml/min. Ziritaxestat and the internal standard (crizotinib) were quantitatively monitored with precursor-to-product transitions of m/z 589.3 > 262.2 and m/z 450.1 > 260.2, respectively. The total running time was 2.5 min. The method showed excellent linearity over the concentration range 0.5–2000 ng/ml, with correlation coefficient >0.9987. The extraction recovery was >82.09% and the matrix effect was not significant. Inter- and intra-day precisions (RSD) were <11.20% and accuracies were in the range of −8.50–7.45%. Ziritaxestat was demonstrated to be stable in rat plasma under the tested conditions. The validated LC–MS/MS method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetic profiles of ziritaxestat in rat plasma after intravenous and oral administration. Pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that ziritaxestat displayed a short half-life (~3 h) and low bioavailability (20.52%).  相似文献   
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Total glucosides of paeony are the active constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba. In this study, a novel strategy was proposed to find more metabolites and the differences between paeoniflorin, albiflorin and total glucosides of paeony (TGP). This strategy was characterized as follows: firstly, the animals were divided into three groups (paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP) to identify the source of TGP metabolites from paeoniflorin or albiflorin; secondly, a generic information‐dependent acquisition scan for the low‐level metabolites was triggered by the multiple mass defect filter and dynamic background subtraction; thirdly, the metabolites were identified with a combination of data‐processing methods including mass defect filtering, neutral loss filtering and product ion filtering; finally, a comparative study was used in the metabolism of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of TGP, 10 metabolites of paeoniflorin and 13 metabolites of albiflorin were identified respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis, conjugation reaction and oxidization were the major metabolic pathways, and the metabolic sites were the glycosidic linkage, the ester bond and the benzene ring. This study is first to explore the metabolism of TGP, and these findings enhance our understanding of the metabolism and the interactions of paeoniflrin and albiflorin in TGP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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