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1.
The paper presents the synthesis and catalytic activity of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles. The CuFe2O4 nanoparticles have been prepared by sonochemical route under low power ultrasonic irradiation (UI) and using silent stirring at room temperature only (ST) along with co-precipitation method, without using any additive/capping agent. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were successfully used and compared for the synthesis of 4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives. The CuFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by sonochemical route exhibit higher catalytic activity because of small size (0.5–5 nm), high surface area (214.55 m2/g), high thermal stability up to 700 °C, recyclability and reusability due to its magnetic characteristics than CuFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by room temperature silent stirring. The synthesized CuFe2O4 nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, SEM–EDX, HR-TEM, XRD, TGA/DTA/DTG, BET, VSM techniques. The present method is of great interest due to its salient features such as environmentally compatible, efficient, short reaction time, chemoselectivity, high yield, cheap, moisture insensitive, green and recyclable catalyst which make it sustainable protocol.  相似文献   
2.
The nonlinear frequency response analysis (NFRA) can be seen as an extension of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. NFRA gives a full and detailed representation of the system response and can establish a connection between model parameters and the experimentally observed phenomena. In this article, different theoretical NFRA approaches and the most recent application examples are discussed. A simple electrochemical example is used to showcase the benefits and disadvantages of analyzing the system response by using different approaches. In addition, it was shown how to extract experimental harmonic values and analyze them.  相似文献   
3.
Workflow systems provide means and techniques for modelling, designing, performing and controlling repetitive (business) processes. The quality of commercial workflow systems is usually determined to a large extent by their versatility and multi-purpose application. One of the current trends in improving workflow systems lies in enriching modelling methods and techniques in order to enlarge design alternatives.The need for such advanced methods is particularly apparent in those fields in which the process duration can be determined only vaguely, but whose completion schedules are at the same time strictly enforced by a highly competitive market by means of fines and penalties. The risk of an overrun has to be weighed against the expected costs and benefits of certain measures reducing turn-around time and their combinations. Because they can help to avoid such penalties—or, at least, keep any potential losses low by identifying critical subprocesses and evaluate appropriate measures—modelling and evaluation techniques are becoming essential features of workflow systems.Methodologically, we use Stochastic Branch-and-Bound as a technique for finding “optimal” bundles of measures. A numerical study shows the benefits of this meta-approach by means of five stepwise-developed decision scenarios requiring rich modelling. Petri nets as a modelling tool and Stochastic Branch-and-Bound as an optimization technique determine for multi-mode resource constrained workflows of varying complexity an optimal workforce strategy with respect to the number of workers and their qualification.  相似文献   
4.
We present local sensitivity analysis for discrete optimal control problems with varying endpoints in the case when the customary regularity of boundary conditions can be violated. We study the behavior of the optimal solutions subject to parametric perturbations of the problem.  相似文献   
5.
In agreement with the Kohn theorem the relative motion (rel) of three electrons in a two-dimensional parabolic trap separates from the centre-of-mass (CM) motion. By introducing new coordinates the Hamiltonian for relative motion in the approximation of non-interacting electrons can be taken to the normal form. The eigenstates of the normalized Hamiltonian are products of the Fock-Darwin states for normal modes. The energy levels for relative motion are obtained by diagonalizing the exact Hamiltonian in the eigenbasis for the non-interacting case. In this basis the interaction matrix elements can be obtained in the analytical form. Since the rank of the Hamiltonian matrix is significantly reduced, the calculations are faster and more accurate than those for the full (CM + rel) motion. This advantage is especially important for the calculations of excited states and the analysis of energy spectra.  相似文献   
6.
Accelerated phase transformations and chemical reactions of metastable aluminas and kaolinite, doped with Cu2 +, Mn3 +/Mn2 + and Fe3 +/Fe2 + ions, are accompanied with accelerated decrease of surface area and pore volume values. The phenomena in metal ion doped samples are explained by a catalytic mechanism, in terms of the Jahn-Teller effect. This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献   
7.
JPC – Journal of Planar Chromatography – Modern TLC - The chromatographic behavior of fourteen 1-arylpiperazine derivatives has been studied by thin-layer chromatography on both silica...  相似文献   
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9.
Free wave propagation properties in one-dimensional chains of nonlinear oscillators are investigated by means of nonlinear maps. In this realm, the governing difference equations are regarded as symplectic nonlinear transformations relating the amplitudes in adjacent chain sites (n, n + 1) thereby considering a dynamical system where the location index n plays the role of the discrete time. Thus, wave propagation becomes synonymous of stability: finding regions of propagating wave solutions is equivalent to finding regions of linearly stable map solutions. Mechanical models of chains of linearly coupled nonlinear oscillators are investigated. Pass- and stop-band regions of the mono-coupled periodic system are analytically determined for period-q orbits as they are governed by the eigenvalues of the linearized 2D map arising from linear stability analysis of periodic orbits. Then, equivalent chains of nonlinear oscillators in complex domain are tackled. Also in this case, where a 4D real map governs the wave transmission, the nonlinear pass- and stop-bands for periodic orbits are analytically determined by extending the 2D map analysis. The analytical findings concerning the propagation properties are then compared with numerical results obtained through nonlinear map iteration.  相似文献   
10.
Recent progress in selection principles theory is discussed and is illustrated mainly by the Hurewicz covering property and its strong version, the Gerlits-Nagy property GN(*). Some results that have not been published elsewhere are given with proofs.  相似文献   
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