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1.
Drozdov  Aleksey D.  Dorfmann  Al 《Meccanica》2004,39(3):245-270
Two series of tensile relaxation tests are performed on natural rubber filled with high abrasion furnace black. To fit observations, constitutive equations are derived for the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of a particle-reinforced elastomer. A filled rubber is modeled as a composite medium, where inclusions with low concentrations of junctions are randomly distributed in the host matrix. The inclusions are treated as equivalent networks of macromolecules, where strands can separate from temporary junctions as they are thermally agitated. The bulk medium is thought of as a permanent network of chains. Unlike conventional concepts of transient networks, the concentration of strands in inclusions is assumed to be affected by mechanical factors: under active loading, inter-chain interactions weaken and some strands that were prevented from detachment from their junctions in a stress-free compound become free to separate from the junctions in a deformed medium. Unloading strengthens interactions between macromolecules, which results in an increase in the number of permanent strands. By using the laws of thermodynamics, stress–strain relations for a particle-reinforced rubber are developed. Adjustable parameters in the constitutive equations are found by fitting the experimental data. It is demonstrated that mechanical pre-loading and annealing of specimens at an elevated temperature noticeably affect concentrations of inclusions with various activation energies for rearrangement of strands.  相似文献   
2.
A statistic is found to combinatorially generate the cycle-counting q-hit numbers, defined algebraically by Haglund [Adv. in Appl. Math. 17 (1996) 408–459]. We then define the notion of a cycle-Mahonian pair of statistics (generalizing that of a Mahonian statistic), and show that our newly discovered statistic is part of such a pair. Finally, we note a second example of a cycle-Mahonian pair of statistics which leads us to define the stronger property of being a cycle-Euler–Mahonian pair.  相似文献   
3.
An expedient synthesis of the alkaloid koniamborine, the only to date isolated naturally occurring pyrano[3,2-b]indole is presented. The key pyrano[3,2-b]indole forming step is a palladium-catalyzed reductive N-heteroannulation of 2-(4-methoxy-2-nitrophenyl)-(4H)-pyrane-4-one.  相似文献   
4.
Differences in the ion flotation properties of palladium(II) and platinum(IV) chloro complexes in aqueous solutions are used to achieve separations of these metals. The anionic chloro complex PtCl2-6 is floated selectively with cationic surfactants of the type, RNR'3Br, from solutions of PdCl2-4 and various concentrations of hydrochloric acid. The palladium(II) does not float from solutions of ? 3.0 M HCl and the platinum(IV) floated from these solutions can be recovered free of palladium. However, the separation is incomplete as much of the platinum(IV) is also unfloated from these solutions. Quantitative separations are obtained by conversion of the palladium(II) to the cationic ammine, Pd(NH3)42+ with aqueous ammonia prior to flotation. The anionic chloro complex of platinum(IV) is unaffected by the presence of ammonia and is floated quantitatively with the surfactant n-hexadecyltri-n-propylammonium bromide from 0.01 M ammonia solutions.  相似文献   
5.
Thermolysis of benzannulated enyne-isocyanates 13 and enyne-isocyanates 36 and 37 promoted the cycloaromatization reactions to generate in situ O,4-didehydro-2-hydroxyquinolines and O,4-didehydro-2-hydroxypyridines, respectively, as reactive intermediates. These cycloaromatized intermediates could be captured either as biradicals and/or as zwitterions depending on the nature of the substituent at the alkynyl terminus. The intermediate derived from cycloaromatization of 13a bearing a phenyl substituent could be regarded as biradical 14, which then abstracts hydrogen atoms from gamma-terpinene leading to 2(1H)-quinolinone 15. Alternatively, the same intermediate could also be regarded as zwitterion 14', which then undergoes an initial hydride abstraction from gamma-terpinene followed by protonation to produce 15. The presence of a 2-phenylethyl substituent in 13b and 37a or a 2-methylphenyl substituent in 37b also allowed the resulting intermediates to be captured intramolecularly either as biradicals or as zwitterions, producing 2(1H)-quinolinone 19, 2(1H)-pyridone 39, and benzopyranopyridine 43, respectively. On the other hand, with a 2-methoxyphenyl, a 2-(dimethylamino)phenyl, or a 3-methoxypropyl substituent, the chemical behavior of the cycloaromatized adduct could be best accounted for in terms of a zwitterionic intermediate leading to benzofuro[3,2-c]quinolin-6(5H)-one (20), 5,11-dihydro-11-methyl-6H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-6-one (25), benzofuro[3,2-c]pyridin-1(2H)-one 44, 2,5-dihydro-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol-1-one 46, and related compounds. Interestingly, thermolysis of 37f bearing a 2-(methoxymethyl)phenyl substituent at the alkynyl terminus produced the unexpected benzopyranopyridine 56 as the major product in a process involving the cleavage of the bond between the methoxyl oxygen and the adjacent methylene carbon. The efficiency and selectivity of the cycloaromatization reaction could also be enhanced by the introduction of 1.1 to 10 equiv of dimethylphenylsilyl chloride to the reaction mixture to capture the resulting zwitterion.  相似文献   
6.
Thermolysis of the enyne-carbodiimides 7 having the central carbon-carbon double bond incorporated as part of the cyclopentene ring favors the formation of the corresponding N,4-didehydro-2-(phenylamino)pyridine intermediates, either as the sigma,pi-biradicals 8 or as the zwitterions 8', for subsequent synthetic elaborations. By placing appropriate substituents at the acetylenic terminus, a variety of the intramolecular decay routes are available for the initially formed sigma,pi-biradicals/zwitterions, leading to the 5,6-dihydrobenzo[c][1,8]naphthyridine 21, the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[1,8]naphthyridine 24 and related compounds 25 and 26, the 5,6-dihydrobenz[f]isoquinoline 28, and the benzofuro[3,2-c]pyridine 30. Surprisingly, the use of the dimethylamino group of the 2-(dimethylamino)phenyl substituent to capture the carbocationic center in the zwitterion 8e' furnished the 5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole 32 in only 14% yield. The majority of the products were the 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinolines 34 and 35, isolated in 48 and 7% yields, respectively. However, it was possible to redirect the reaction toward 32 by conducting thermolysis of the enyne-carbodiimide 7e in the presence of 5 equiv of dimethylphenylsilyl chloride. Under this reaction condition, the 2-pyridone imine 37 was isolated in 86% yield, which on exposure to silica gel was converted to 32 in essentially quantitative yield. Thermolysis of the enyne-carbodiimide 42 having a methoxymethyl substituent at the acetylenic terminus led to the formation of 46' as a pyridine analogue of ortho-quinone methide imine. An intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 46' then furnished the tetrahydro[1,8]naphthyridino[2,1-c][1,4]benzoxazine 47.  相似文献   
7.
The reaction of [SiMe2(C5H4)2][(C5Me5)ZrMe2]2 with H2S at 110°C proceeds with the formation of [SiMe2(C5H4)2][(C5Me5)Zr(-S)]2]2. The molecular structure of this dinuclear zirconocenophane compound features a non-planar four-membered Zr2(-S)2 2 ring with two symmetrically-bridging sulfido groups. The bridging dimethylsilyl-bridged bis(cyclopentadienyl) ligand adopts a skewed orientation to accommodate the long Zr ... Zr separation of 3.611(1) Å. This compound crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group P1 with refined lattice parameters ofa = 10.905(1) Å,b = 10.939(2) Å,c = 14.621(2) Å, = 106.32(1)°, = 91.25(1)°, = 111.25(1)°,V = 1545.1(8) Å3, calc. = 1.512g/cm3,Z=2. Full-matrix refinement converged with final discrepancy indices of R(F o = 0.045 andR(F o) = 0.079 with GOF= 1.60 for 4403 data withF o > 3(F o).This paper is dedicated to Professor Larry Dahl, a valued friend and mentor, on the occasion of his 65th birthday and in recognition of his significant fundamental contributions to the field of metal cluster chemistry. May the Goddess Fortuna continue to bring distinction and honor to him and his research endeavors.  相似文献   
8.
A method of statistical estimation is applied to the problem of evaluating the absolute entropy of internal rotation in a molecule with two torsional degrees of freedom. The configurational part of the entropy is obtained as that of the joint probability density of an arbitrary form represented by a two-dimensional Fourier series, the coefficients of which are statistically estimated using a sample of the torsional angles of the molecule obtained by a stochastic simulation. The internal rotors in the molecule are assumed to be attached to a common frame, and their reduced moments of inertia are initially calculated as functions of the two torsional angles, but averaged over all the remaining internal degrees of freedom using the stochastic-simulation sample of the atomic configurations of the molecule. The torsional-angle dependence of the reduced moments of inertia can be also averaged out, and the absolute internal-rotation entropy of the molecule is obtained in a good approximation as the sum of the configurational entropy and a kinetic contribution fully determined by the averaged reduced moments of inertia. The method is illustrated using Monte Carlo simulations of isomers of stilbene and halogenated derivatives of propane. The two torsional angles in cis-stilbene are found to be much more strongly correlated than those in trans-stilbene, while the degree of the angular correlation in propane increases strongly on substitution of hydrogen atoms with chlorine.  相似文献   
9.
Two naturally occurring β-carbolines, 6-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline and bauerine A, have been prepared using a Stille-type coupling, followed by a palladium-phosphine catalyzed N-heteroannulation as the key steps.  相似文献   
10.
McCarthy WJ  Dunlap KL 《Talanta》1970,17(4):305-317
Ten solvents containing heavy atoms were examined for suitability for use in the external heavy atom effect for routine phosphorimetry. In previous work only iodine-containing solvent systems have been used, and the incongruity of enhancement results for structurally similar compounds suggests that the ultraviolet transmission characteristics of the solvent systems may be responsible for fractional enhancements. In this study the effect of chlorine-, bromine-, and iodine-containing solvent systems on phosphorescence and fluorescence intensities was investigated. Generally, chlorine-, and bromine-containing solvent systems showed a significant improvement in phosphorimetric enhancements with slightly longer lifetimes than in solvent systems containing iodine. As expected from their smaller spin-orbit coupling, chlorine-containing solvent systems yield smaller enhancements than bromine-containing solvent systems. Solvent systems containing bromine seem to offer the best compromise between ultraviolet transmission characteristics and large spin-orbit coupling constants.  相似文献   
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