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1.
This paper continues a program to show that for most of the standard Lie incidence geometries, all geometric hyperplanes arise from a necessarily absolutely universal embedding, by addingE 7,1 to the list. It follows from [5, 12] that any projective embedding of this point line geometry is a homomorphic image of the one afforded by the 56-dimensional module for the groupE 7(K).This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation.  相似文献   
2.
We have used time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy with 181Ta-probes to study the electric field gradient at Zr-sites in synthetic zircon and hafnon between room temperature and 1,200°C. PAC spectra are similar to those obtained from naturally occurring zircons. In particular, a change in slope of the quadrupole coupling vs. temperature is observed in the synthetic zircon at the same temperature as seen in natural zircons from the Mud Tank carbonatite (Australia). The synthetic hafnon data also shows this feature but at somewhat higher temperature. Low-temperature PAC spectra of both synthetic zircon and hafnon have a clearly reduced anisotropy. We believe that the cause for this is a electronic defect, possibly created during the β-decay of the probe parent nucleus.  相似文献   
3.
A nonlinear operator equation F(x)=0, F:HH, in a Hilbert space is considered. Continuous Newton’s-type procedures based on a construction of a dynamical system with the trajectory starting at some initial point x 0 and becoming asymptotically close to a solution of F(x)=0 as t→+∞ are discussed. Well-posed and ill-posed problems are investigated. Received: June 29, 2001; in final form: February 26, 2002?Published online: February 20, 2003 This paper was finished when AGR was visiting Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Giessen. The author thanks DAAD for support  相似文献   
4.
5.
Vidussi was the first to construct knotted Lagrangian tori in simply connected four-dimensional manifolds. Fintushel and Stern introduced a second way to detect such knotting. This note demonstrates that similar examples may be distinguished by the fundamental group of the exterior.

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6.
Photonic devices based on III-nitrides offer benefits such as UV/blue emission, large band offsets of InN/GaN/AlN heterostructures allowing novel quantum well (QW) device design, and inherently high-emission efficiencies. Furthermore, due to their mechanical hardness and larger band gaps (when compared with conventional semiconductor devices), III-nitride-based devices may operate at much higher temperatures and voltages/power levels for any dimensional configuration and in harsher environments than other semiconductor devices and are expected to provide much lower temperature sensitivities. These are crucial advantages for many applications. Over the last decade, the physics of microsize photonic devices has been investigated. New physical phenomena and properties are expected to dominate as the device size scales down. The microsize light emitters offer benefits over edge emitters such as the ability to create arrays of individually controllable pixels on a single chip, enhanced quantum efficiency, and greatly reduced lasing threshold. Rapid progress in the area of III-nitride microphotonics has been made. The growth and fabrication of micron and submicron size photonic structures based on III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors has been achieved, and the technology has made it possible to integrate arrays of optical elements to form active photonic-integrated devices. One example is an interconnected µ-LED with enhanced emission efficiency over the conventional LEDs for the same device area. Another example is a µ-LED array with independently addressed pixels or III-nitride microdisplay. III-nitride microdisplay may offer performance that is superior to microdisplays fabricated from liquid crystals and organic LEDs. The third example presented is III-nitride UV Focal Plane Arrays (UV-FPA) of detectors. So far, the operation of AlGaN UV-FPA with size up to 256×256 pixels with 30×30?μm2 unit cells has been demonstrated. Together with the nature of their two-dimensional array, these active micro-photonic devices show promise in many important applications, such as optical communications, signal and image processing, optical interconnects, computing, enhanced energy conversion and storage, chemical, biohazard substances, and disease detection, missile and shellfire, atmospheric ozone-level, and flame sensing. III-nitride microlens arrays have been fabricated successfully for blue and UV wavelength applications on GaN and AlN. The successful fabrication of microlens arrays based on III-nitride materials opens the possibility for monolithically integrating nitride-based micro-size photonic devices, as well as coupling light into, out of, and between arrays of III-nitride emitters and detectors, especially for short wavelengths covering the green-blue to deep UV (200?nm) region. Nanofabrication and characterization of photonic crystals with diameter/periodicity as small as 100/180?nm on InGaN/GaN MQW has been achieved. An unprecedented maximum enhancement factor of 20 was obtained under optical pumping. Single-mode ridged optical waveguide devices using GaN/AlGaN heterostructures have been designed, fabricated, and characterized for operation in 1550?nm wavelength window. The feasibility of developing novel photonic integrated circuits based on III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors for fiber-optical communications has been investigated.  相似文献   
7.
The valence band and core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of iron and its oxides are reported, and the valence band spectra interpreted by various calculation models. The paper focuses upon the valence band region, which shows significant differences between the metal and the following oxidized iron species: FeO, Fe(3)O(4), alpha-Fe(2)O(3), gamma-Fe(2)O(3), alpha-FeOOH and gamma-FeOOH. The core region is of little analytical value as a means of distinguishing between these species, but the valence band region shows significant differences. These differences are consistent with spectra predicted by cluster and band structure calculations. Cluster calculations are valuable as a means for interpreting the spectra of iron oxides with multiple iron sites and defect characteristics.  相似文献   
8.
The class of orthomodular lattices which have only finitely many commutators is investigated. The following theorems are proved: contains the block-finite orthomodular lattices. Every irreducible element of is simple. Every element of is a direct product of a Boolean algebra and finitely many simple orthomodular lattices. The irreducible elements of which are modular, or are M-symmetric with at least one atom, have height two or less.  相似文献   
9.
Using small-angle light scattering we show that a new phase of soot with size ca. 10 microm and a fractal dimension of D approximately equal to 2.6 exists in laminar diffusion flames for a wide range of heavily sooting fuels. This new phase appears to be a supramicrometer extension of the well-known submicrometer, D approximately equal to 1.8 phase of soot formed via diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA). The occurrence of this new soot phase correlates with an empirical sooting index for fuels. This supports a creation scenario in which these supramicrometer aggregates are created via a percolation of the submicrometer, D approximately equal to 1.8 aggregates.  相似文献   
10.
Reaction pathways for the formation of zirconocene phosphinidene complex Cp2Zr(PR3)PR from Cp2ZrCl2 and LiH and LiPRH and its reactivity to 1,2-dichloroethane are explored with density functional theory using model structures that are devoid of substituents. After the initial Cp2Zr(Cl)PH2 is generated with LiPH2 reaction with LiH is likely to eliminate HCl in a single step to give directly the 16-electron complex Cp2ZrPH, which is stabilized by the PH3 phosphine ligand. The intermediate formation of a phosphine hydride complex, Cp2Zr(H)PH2 resulting from hydride substitution, is unlikely both on the basis of unfavorable reaction energies and calculated 31P NMR chemical shifts that indicate that such a species cannot have been observed experimentally. It is likely that a diphosphine complex, Cp2Zr(PH2)2, results on using an excess of the lithium phosphide, which on H-transfer gives directly the phosphine-stabilized phosphinidene complex. The reactivity of this species is dominated by the release of its stabilizing phosphine ligand to give a highly reactive 16-electron phosphinidene complex, Cp2ZrPH, which reacts with 1,2-dichloroethane after coordination to one of the chlorine atoms in two asynchronous metathesis steps to the three-membered phosphirane ring. In this process, ZrCl2 is reformed enabling its recycling to regenerate the phosphinidene complex. This study highlights the special reactivity of the 16-electron Cp2ZrPH and suggests that related complexes may be generated similarly, thereby expanding the synthetic potential of these nucleophilic reagents.  相似文献   
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