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1.

The γ

_{cmc}values of CTAB-SDS decrease from 63.67 mN/m at 10‡C to 36.38 mN/m at 90‡C, slightly lower than those of either CTAB or SDS. Correspondingly, the CMC of CTAB-SDS decreases almost by half. The increase of surface activity of CTAB-SDS can be attributed to the relatively weak electrostatic interaction at high temperature, which is supported by the increase of solubility of CTAB-SDS with rise in temperature. Catalytic effect on oxidation of toluene derivatives with potassium permanganate follows the order CTAB-SDS > SDS > CTAB. This is not caused by the dissociative effect of CTAB-SDS with low surface activity at low temperature, as seen from the fact that almost all oxidative products can be retrieved for different toluene derivatives and surfactants by mimicking the conditions of reaction. In the emulsifications of toluene derivatives at 90‡C, the time that turbid water layers of surfactant solutions take to become clear is the same as that of the catalytic effect on oxidation of toluene derivatives. Thus, it can be inferred that surfactants can improve the oxidation yields of toluene derivatives by increasing the contact between two reacting phases. 相似文献2.

《European Journal of Operational Research》2006,174(3):1885-1913

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) problems are often characterised by a large number of identified environmental factors that are qualitative in nature and can only be assessed on the basis of human judgments, which inevitably involve various types of uncertainties such as ignorance and fuzziness. So, EIA problems need to be modelled and analysed using methods that can handle uncertainties. The evidential reasoning (ER) approach provides such a modelling framework and analysis method. In this paper the ER approach will be applied to conduct EIA analysis for the first time. The environmental impact consequences are characterized by a set of assessment grades that are assumed to be collectively exhaustive and mutually exclusive. All assessment information, quantitative or qualitative, complete or incomplete, and precise or imprecise, is modelled using a unified framework of a belief structure. The original ER approach with a recursive ER algorithm will be introduced and a new analytical ER algorithm will be investigated which provides a means for using the ER approach in decision situations where an explicit ER aggregation function is needed such as in optimisation problems. The ER approach will be used to aggregate multiple environmental factors, resulting in an aggregated distributed assessment for each alternative policy. A numerical example and its modified version are studied to illustrate the detailed implementation process of the ER approach and demonstrate its potential applications in EIA. 相似文献

3.

A new unified electroweak model is proposed in this paper. In this unified electroweak model, Higgsmechanism is not used, so no Higgs particle exists in the model. In order to keep the masses of intermediate gaugebosons non-zero, two sets of gauge fields will be introduced. In order to introduce symmetry breaking and to help tointroduce the masses of all fields, a vacuum potential is needed. Except for those terms concerning Higgs particle, thefundamental dynamical properties of this model are similar to those of the standard model. And in a proper limit, thismodel will approximately return to the standard model. The purpose of this paper is not to say that the Higgs particledoes not exist in Nature, it is only to prove that, without a Higgs particle, we can also set up a unified electroweak modelwhich is consistent with present experiments. 相似文献

4.

We have obtained expressions of the accelerating effect in Kerr-Newman Kasuya field. These expressionsinclude four parameters: mass m, angular momentum a, electric charge q, and magnetic charge φ. Furthermore we studyits special case (vi = 0). We get the following conclusion. In the gravitation field of souse mass with electric charge qand magnetic charge b, the acceleration of test particle has not only radial component but also transverse component.When θ = 0, the acceleration is minimum, and when θ = π/2, the acceleration is maximum. Furthermore, we discussthe effects of electric charge q and magnetic charge φ respectively. 相似文献

5.

6.

《Chaos, solitons, and fractals》2006,27(1):97-101

Sufficient condition for the generalized synchronization of continuous chaotic system with a kind of nonlinear transformation is derived. The method is illustrated by applications to Lorenz and Duffing chaotic systems and the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed theorem. 相似文献

7.

C.J. Wu 《Applied Acoustics》2002,63(10):1143-1154

This work formulates the double-layer structural-acoustic coupling problem for cylindrical shell by using a combination of the wave-number domain approach (WDA) and the boundary integral equation (BIE). Expressions for the spectral radial velocity of the outer surface of a finite fluid-filled/submerged (FFS) cylindrical thin shell are formulated by means of the transfer matrix equation in wave-number domain. It is shown that the spectral variables on the inner surface of the shell are related to those on the outer surface of the shell. The far field sound radiation from this kind of shell is numerically evaluated for various fluid cases. An experimental verification is performed, and a good correlation between the theoretical results and the experimental results shows that the theoretical study work in this paper is correct. 相似文献

8.

Zhao Hanzhong 《Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica》2002,15(2):156-162

A finite difference/boundary integral procedure to determine the acoustic reflected pressure from a fluid-loaded bi-laminated
plate is described. The bi-laminate is composed of a piezoelectric layer and an elastic layer in contact with the fluid, and
is held by an acoustically hard baffle. In the numerical model, the fluid pressure at fluid/solid interface is replaced by
a continuum of point sources weighted by the normal acceleration of the elastic plate, and the governing equation system is
solved in the solid domain. With the normal acceleration found, the reflected pressure in the fluid is determined by an integral
expression involving the Green's function. It is demonstrated that an appropriate applied voltage potential across the piezoelectric
layer has the effect of cancelling either the reflected or scattered pressure of the plate at any chosen field points in the
fluid.
Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10172039). 相似文献

9.

《European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids》2006,25(4):670-676

Some principal features of the behavior of materials subjected to pulsed actions are common for a number of seemingly quite different physical processes, such as dynamic fracture (starting cracks and scabbing), cavitation in liquids, and electrical breakdown in solids. In this paper, we analyze examples illustrating typical dynamic effects inherent in these processes. We propose a unified interpretation for the fracture of solids and liquids and electrical breakdown in insulators using the structural-time approach based on the concept of the fracture incubation time. The examples of different physical processes considered in the paper show the fundamental importance of investigating incubation processes preparing abrupt structural changes (fracture and phase transitions) in continua under intense pulsed actions. The fracture incubation time is evidently a universal basic characteristic of the dynamic strength and must become one of the main material parameters to be experimentally determined (measured). 相似文献

10.

《ournal of non Newtonian Fluid Mechanics》2006,135(1):8-15

The analytical solution of the equations of motion is presented for a fully developed laminar flow in a curved channel with circular walls, when an oscillating circumferential pressure gradient is imposed (finite gap oscillating Dean flow). The fluid studied, is a viscoelastic (Jeffrey) fluid. The validity of the solution is verified by a finite difference numerical method. 相似文献