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Zhang  Junyu  Hong  Mingyi  Zhang  Shuzhong 《Mathematical Programming》2022,194(1-2):901-935
Mathematical Programming - In this paper, we study the lower iteration complexity bounds for finding the saddle point of a strongly convex and strongly concave saddle point problem: $$\min _x\max...  相似文献   
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Understanding the thermal aggregation behavior of metal atoms is important for the synthesis of supported metal clusters. Here, derived from a metal–organic framework encapsulating a trinuclear FeIII2FeII complex (denoted as Fe3) within the channels, a well-defined nitrogen-doped carbon layer is fabricated as an ideal support for stabilizing the generated iron nanoclusters. Atomic replacement of FeII by other metal(II) ions (e.g., ZnII/CoII) via synthesizing isostructural trinuclear-complex precursors (Fe2Zn/Fe2Co), namely the “heteroatom modulator approach”, is inhibiting the aggregation of Fe atoms toward nanoclusters with formation of a stable iron dimer in an optimal metal–nitrogen moiety, clearly identified by direct transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The supported iron dimer, serving as cooperative metal–metal site, acts as efficient oxygen evolution catalyst. Our findings offer an atomic insight to guide the future design of ultrasmall metal clusters bearing outstanding catalytic capabilities.  相似文献   
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A class of acceptor–donor–acceptor chromophoric small-molecule non-fullerene acceptors, 1–4, with difluoroboron(iii) β-diketonate (BF2bdk) as the electron-accepting moiety has been developed. Through the variation of the central donor unit and the modification on the peripheral substituents of the terminal BF2bdk acceptor unit, their photophysical and electrochemical properties have been systematically studied. Taking advantage of their low-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels (from −3.65 to −3.72 eV) and relatively high electron mobility (7.49 × 10−4 cm2 V−1 s−1), these BF2bdk-based compounds have been employed as non-fullerene acceptors in organic solar cells with maximum power conversion efficiencies of up to 4.31%. Moreover, bistable resistive memory characteristics with charge-trapping mechanisms have been demonstrated in these BF2bdk-based compounds. This work not only demonstrates for the first time the use of a boron(iii) β-diketonate unit in constructing non-fullerene acceptors, but also provides more insights into designing organic materials with multi-functional properties.

Boron(iii) β-diketonates have been demonstrated to serve as multi-functional materials in NFA-based OPVs and organic resistive memories.  相似文献   
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Silver nanoparticles (NPs) ranging in size from 40 to 100 nm were prepared in high yield by using an improved seed‐mediated method. The homogeneous Ag NPs were used as building blocks for 2D assembled Ag NP arrays by using an oil/water interface. A close‐packed 2D array of Ag NPs was fabricated by using packing molecules (3‐mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane) to control the interparticle spacing. The homogeneous 2D Ag NP array exhibited a strong quadrupolar cooperative plasmon mode resonance and a dipolar red‐shift relative to individual Ag NPs suspended in solution. A well‐arranged 2D Ag NP array was embedded in polydimethylsiloxane film and, with biaxial stretching to control the interparticle distance, concomitant variations of the quadrupolar and dipolar couplings were observed. As the interparticle distance increased, the intensity of the quadrupolar cooperative plasmon mode resonance decreased and dipolar coupling completely disappeared. The local electric field of the 2D Ag NP array was calculated by using finite difference time domain simulation and qualitatively showed agreement with the experimental measurements.  相似文献   
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The research progress of a novel traffic solution,a submerged floating tunnel(SFT),is reviewed in terms of a study approach and loading scenario.Among existing publications,the buoyancy-weight ratio(BWR) is usually predefined.However,BWR is a critical structural parameter that tremendously affects the dynamic behaviour of not only the tunnel tube itself but also the cable system.In the context of a SFT prototype(SFTP) project in Qiandao Lake(Zhejiang Province,China),the importance of BWR is illustrated by finite element analysis and subsequently,an optimized BWR is proposed within a reasonable range in the present study.In the numerical model,structural damping is identified to be of importance.Rayleigh damping and the corresponding Rayleigh coefficients are attained through a sensitivity study,which shows that the adopted damping ratios are fairly suitable for SFTP.Lastly,the human sense of security is considered by quantifying the comfort index,which helps further optimize BWR in the SFTP structural parameter design.  相似文献   
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