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1.
Single crystals of sarcosinium oxalate monohydrate (SOM) are grown by the slow-evaporation technique at ambient temperature, and vibrational spectroscopic analysis is carried out using NIR-FT Raman, FT-IR, and SERS spectra. The normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational analysis of SOM are examined theoretically using the Gaussian’98 set of quantum chemical codes. The two bands present in the SOM ν C=O region, clearly observed in the Raman spectrum, are assigned to “free” and “bonded” carbonyl groups with the hydrogen atom. Vibrational analysis indicates the presence of C-H—O hydrogen bonding interaction producing a blueshift of the C-H stretching frequency.  相似文献   
2.
Sonochemistry and photochemistry are initiated by high-energy transient species, which may be prone to mutual interaction. Electronic excitation of solutes by energy transfer from high energy species generated in collapsing bubbles is already supported by experimental evidence. The rates of photochemical reactions can be affected by ultrasound-induced mixing of liquids caused by microstreaming near pulsating cavitation bubbles and shockwaves due to bubble collapse. This may not only improve light absorption but also modify the pathway of reaction by increasing the contact between reagents. Finally, one may speculate about a potentially new chemistry of photoexcited solutes under the extreme conditions inside cavitation microreactors. This work reviews research on the excitation of solutes by sonoluminescence, the combined effects of ultrasound and light on liquid systems and the effect of ultrasound on photocatalytic reactions.  相似文献   
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In this paper we provide an extension of barycentric coordinates from simplices to arbitrary convex sets. Barycentric coordinates over convex 2D polygons have found numerous applications in various fields as they allow smooth interpolation of data located on vertices. However, no explicit formulation valid for arbitrary convex polytopes has been proposed to extend this interpolation in higher dimensions. Moreover, there has been no attempt to extend these functions into the continuous domain, where barycentric coordinates are related to Green’s functions and construct functions that satisfy a boundary value problem. First, we review the properties and construction of barycentric coordinates in the discrete domain for convex polytopes. Next, we show how these concepts extend into the continuous domain to yield barycentric coordinates for continuous functions. We then provide a proof that our functions satisfy all the desirable properties of barycentric coordinates in arbitrary dimensions. Finally, we provide an example of constructing such barycentric functions over regions bounded by parametric curves and show how they can be used to perform freeform deformations.   相似文献   
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Laser-ablated Co-doped In2O3 thin films were fabricated under various growth conditions on R-cut Al2O3 and MgO substrates. All Co:In2O3 films are well-crystallized, single phase, and room temperature ferromagnetic. Co atoms were well substituted for In atoms, and their distribution is greatly uniform over the whole thickness of the films. Films grown at 550 °C showed the largest magnetic moment of about 0.5 μB/Co, while films grown at higher temperatures have magnetic moments of one order smaller. The observed ferromagnetism above room temperature in Co:In2O3 thin films has confirmed that doping few percent of magnetic elements such as Co into In2O3 could result in a promising magnetic material.  相似文献   
8.
For a multivariate density f with respect to Lebesgue measure , the estimation of % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXafv3ySLgzGmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjhiov2D% aebbfv3ySLgzGueE0jxyaibaiiYdd9qrFfea0dXdf9vqai-hEir8Ve% ea0de9qq-hbrpepeea0db9q8as0-LqLs-Jirpepeea0-as0Fb9pgea% 0lrP0xe9Fve9Fve9qapdbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaamaabaabcaGcba% Waa8qaaeaacaWGkbGaaiikaiaadAgacaGGPaGaamOzaiaadsgacqaH% 8oqBaSqabeqaniabgUIiYdaaaa!4404!\[\int {J(f)fd\mu } \], and in particular % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXafv3ySLgzGmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjhiov2D% aebbfv3ySLgzGueE0jxyaibaiiYdd9qrFfea0dXdf9vqai-hEir8Ve% ea0de9qq-hbrpepeea0db9q8as0-LqLs-Jirpepeea0-as0Fb9pgea% 0lrP0xe9Fve9Fve9qapdbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaamaabaabcaGcba% Waa8qaaeaacaWGMbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaOGaamizaiabeY7a% TbWcbeqab0Gaey4kIipaaaa!41E4!\[\int {f^2 d\mu } \] and % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXafv3ySLgzGmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjhiov2D% aebbfv3ySLgzGueE0jxyaibaiiYdd9qrFfea0dXdf9vqai-hEir8Ve% ea0de9qq-hbrpepeea0db9q8as0-LqLs-Jirpepeea0-as0Fb9pgea% 0lrP0xe9Fve9Fve9qapdbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaamaabaabcaGcba% Waa8qaaeaacaWGMbGaciiBaiaac+gacaGGNbGaamOzaiaadsgacqaH% 8oqBaSqabeqaniabgUIiYdaaaa!44AC!\[\int {f\log fd\mu } \], is studied. These two particular functionals are important in a number of contexts. Asymptotic bias and variance terms are obtained for the estimators % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXafv3ySLgzGmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjhiov2D% aebbfv3ySLgzGueE0jxyaibaiiYdd9qrFfea0dXdf9vqai-hEir8Ve% ea0de9qq-hbrpepeea0db9q8as0-LqLs-Jirpepeea0-as0Fb9pgea% 0lrP0xe9Fve9Fve9qapdbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaamaabaabcaGcba% WaaybyaeqaleqabaGaey4jIKnaneaacaWGjbaaaOGaeyypa0Zaa8qa% aeaacaWGkbGaaiikamaawagabeWcbeqaaiabgEIizdqdbaGaamOzaa% aakiaacMcacaWGKbGaamOramaaBaaaleaacaWGobaabeaaaeqabeqd% cqGHRiI8aaaa!4994!\[\mathop I\limits^ \wedge = \int {J(\mathop f\limits^ \wedge )dF_N } \] and % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXafv3ySLgzGmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjhiov2D% aebbfv3ySLgzGueE0jxyaibaiiYdd9qrFfea0dXdf9vqai-hEir8Ve% ea0de9qq-hbrpepeea0db9q8as0-LqLs-Jirpepeea0-as0Fb9pgea% 0lrP0xe9Fve9Fve9qapdbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaamaabaabcaGcba% WaaybyaeqaleqabaGaeSipIOdaneaacaWGjbaaaOGaeyypa0Zaa8qa% aeaacaWGkbGaaiikamaawagabeWcbeqaaiabgEIizdqdbaGaamOzaa% aakiaacMcadaGfGbqabSqabeaacqGHNis2a0qaaiaadAgaaaGccaWG% KbGaeqiVd0galeqabeqdcqGHRiI8aaaa!4C40!\[\mathop I\limits^ \sim = \int {J(\mathop f\limits^ \wedge )\mathop f\limits^ \wedge d\mu } \], where % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXafv3ySLgzGmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjhiov2D% aebbfv3ySLgzGueE0jxyaibaiiYdd9qrFfea0dXdf9vqai-hEir8Ve% ea0de9qq-hbrpepeea0db9q8as0-LqLs-Jirpepeea0-as0Fb9pgea% 0lrP0xe9Fve9Fve9qapdbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaamaabaabcaGcba% WaaybyaeqaleqabaGaey4jIKnaneaacaWGMbaaaaaa!3E9C!\[{\mathop f\limits^ \wedge }\] is a kernel density estimate of f and F n is the empirical distribution function based on the random sample X 1 ,..., X n from f. For the two functionalsmentioned above, a first order bias term for Î can be made zero by appropriate choices of non-unimodal kernels. Suggestions for the choice of bandwidth are given; for % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXafv3ySLgzGmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjhiov2D% aebbfv3ySLgzGueE0jxyaibaiiYdd9qrFfea0dXdf9vqai-hEir8Ve% ea0de9qq-hbrpepeea0db9q8as0-LqLs-Jirpepeea0-as0Fb9pgea% 0lrP0xe9Fve9Fve9qapdbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaamaabaabcaGcba% WaaybyaeqaleqabaGaey4jIKnaneaacaWGjbaaaOGaeyypa0Zaa8qa% aeaadaGfGbqabSqabeaacqGHNis2a0qaaiaadAgaaaGccaWGKbGaam% OramaaBaaaleaacaWGobaabeaaaeqabeqdcqGHRiI8aaaa!476C!\[\mathop I\limits^ \wedge = \int {\mathop f\limits^ \wedge dF_N } \], a study of optimal bandwidth is possible.This research was supported by an NSERC Grant and a UBC Killam Research Fellowship.  相似文献   
9.
A study of migration of the active components of oxygen sensors into food is presented. Six types of sensors, based on different oxygen sensitive dyes (two metalloporphyrins and one ruthenium dye), polymers (polystyrene and polysulfone) and support materials, were exposed to a number of standard ‘food simulants’ recommended by FDA/EU guidelines and then assayed for migration or sensor components and changes in oxygen calibration. Both metalloporphyrin sensor dyes leached only in olive oil and in 95% ethanol (used as a positive control), at maximum levels of 19.22 μg/dm2 for PtOEPK and 113.96 μg/dm2 for PtTFPP. The RuDPP dye showed maximum leaching in 95% ethanol (25.19 μg/dm2) while also migrating in an acidic aqueous simulant. Planar supports such as polyester tended to enhance the stability of the sensor. Migration of the styrene monomer from the polystyrene encapsulation medium was concluded to be low enough to be insignificant. Migration of sensor components was shown to correlate with the changes in sensor response to oxygen. Based on these results, sensor combinations were ranked on the basis of their resistance to leaching and their general stability, safety and suitability for use on a large scale in packaged foods and related food applications was proven.  相似文献   
10.
We describe the novel use of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions to achieve unique separations in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC). The choice and concentration of the buffer type, surfactant and co-surfactant were all examined and optimized. Separations of a range of neutral and acidic analytes was shown to be markedly different to that obtained by (oil-in-water) O/W MEEKC. Neutral solutes are separated by virtue of their solubility (log P) values in O/W MEEKC with the more water-insoluble solutes migrating last. This separation process does not occur in W/O, as neutral solutes are not separated in order of log P.  相似文献   
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