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1.
4D printing is an exciting branch of additive manufacturing. It relies on established 3D printing techniques to fabricate objects in much the same way. However, structures which fall into the 4D printed category have the ability to change with time, hence the “extra dimension.” The common perception of 4D printed objects is that of macroscopic single-material structures limited to point-to-point shape change only, in response to either heat or water. However, in the area of polymer 4D printing, recent advancements challenge this understanding. A host of new polymeric materials have been designed which display a variety of wonderful effects brought about by unconventional stimuli, and advanced additive manufacturing techniques have been developed to accommodate them. As a result, the horizons of polymer 4D printing have been broadened beyond what was initially thought possible. In this review, we showcase the many studies which evolve the very definition of polymer 4D printing, and reveal emerging areas of research integral to its advancement.  相似文献   
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The designs of efficient and inexpensive Pt-based catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) are essential to boost the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. Here, the highly catalytic performance PtFe alloys supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorating nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) have been successfully prepared via co-engineering of the surface composition and electronic structure. The Pt1Fe3@NC/MWCNTs catalyst with moderate Fe3+ feeding content (0.86 mA/mgPt) exhibits 2.26-fold enhancement in MOR mass activity compared to pristine Pt/C catalyst (0.38 mA/mgPt). Furthermore, the CO oxidation initial potential of Pt1Fe3@NC/MWCNTs catalyst is lower relative to Pt/C catalyst (0.71 V and 0.80 V). Benefited from the optimal surface compositions, the anti-corrosion ability of MWCNT, strong electron interaction between PtFe alloys and MWCNTs and the N-doped carbon (NC) layer, the Pt1Fe3@NC/MWCNTs catalyst presents an improved MOR performance and anti-CO poisoning ability. This study would open up new perspective for designing efficient electrocatalysts for the DMFCs field.  相似文献   
3.
Let p ∈ [1, ∞), q ∈ [1, ∞), α∈ R, and s be a non-negative integer. Inspired by the space JNp introduced by John and Nirenberg(1961) and the space B introduced by Bourgain et al.(2015), we introduce a special John-Nirenberg-Campanato space JNcon(p,q,s) over Rn or a given cube of R;with finite side length via congruent subcubes, which are of some amalgam features. The limit space of such spaces as p →∞ is just the Campanato space which coincides with the space BMO(the space of functions with bounded mean oscillations)when α = 0. Moreover, a vanishing subspace of this new space is introduced, and its equivalent characterization is established as well, which is a counterpart of the known characterization for the classical space VMO(the space of functions with vanishing mean oscillations) over Rn or a given cube of Rn with finite side length.Furthermore, some VMO-H1-BMO-type results for this new space are also obtained, which are based on the aforementioned vanishing subspaces and the Hardy-type space defined via congruent cubes in this article. The geometrical properties of both the Euclidean space via its dyadic system and congruent cubes play a key role in the proofs of all these results.  相似文献   
4.
柯荣住  张进 《运筹学学报》2021,25(3):87-104
本文首先对双层规划的一个特殊例子即道德风险模型中使用的一阶条件方法(FOA)做简要的梳理,然后提出一种更为一般的使FOA有效的原则与方法。新方法主要依赖于代理人对委托人设置的目标的最优反应映射是否存在不动点,这个性质不要求原问题与用一阶条件放松以后的问题之间的约束集等价,从而也不要求代理人的期望效用对行动具有全局凹性。在新方法下,可以用较为简单的方法证明FOA在以下两种情形之一有效,即如果分布函数是概率分布的凸组合或者分布函数来自某些特殊的指数族分布。  相似文献   
5.
Solar-driven interfacial vaporization by localizing solar-thermal energy conversion to the air−water interface has attracted tremendous attention. In the process of converting solar energy into heat energy, photothermal materials play an essential role. Herein, a flexible solar-thermal material di-cyan substituted 5,12-dibutylquinacridone (DCN−4CQA)@Paper was developed by coating photothermal quinacridone derivatives on the cellulose paper. The DCN−4CQA@Paper combines desired chemical and physical properties, broadband light-absorbing, and shape-conforming abilities that render efficient photothermic vaporization. Notably, synergetic coupling of solar-steam and solar-electricity technologies by integrating DCN−4CQA@Paper and the thermoelectric devices is realized without trade-offs, highlighting the practical consideration toward more impactful solar heat exploitation. Such solar distillation and low-grade heat-to-electricity generation functions can provide potential opportunities for fresh water and electricity supply in off-grid or remote areas.  相似文献   
6.
Jin  Zhuochen  Cao  Nan  Shi  Yang  Wu  Wenchao  Wu  Yingcai 《显形杂志》2021,24(2):349-364
Journal of Visualization - The increasing availability of spatiotemporal data provides unprecedented opportunities for understanding the structure of an urban area in terms of people’s...  相似文献   
7.
We studied the ring opening of propylene oxide (PO) by salen-M coordinated OH group [M = Al(III), Sc(III), Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III), Co(II), Co(III), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ru(III) and Rh(III)]. The results show that the ring-opening energy barriers for M(II) complexes are much lower than those with M(III) complexes in the gas phase, and the barriers correlate linearly with the negative charges on the OH group and the Fukui function condensed on the OH group. The nucleophilicity ordering in the gas phase can be rationalized by the ratio of formal positive charges/radius of M cations. Solvent effect greatly increases the barriers of M(II) complexes but slightly changes the results of M(III) ones, making the barriers similar. Analysis indicates that the reaction heats are linearly proportional to the reverse reaction barriers. The relationships established here can be used to estimate the ring-opening barriers and to screen epoxide ring-opening catalysts.  相似文献   
8.
Transport in Porous Media - A macroscopic model that accounts for the effect of momentum dispersion on flows in porous media is proposed. The model is based on the pore scale prevalence hypothesis...  相似文献   
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