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1.
A combined experimental and computational approach was used to distinguish between different polymorphs of the pharmaceutical drug aspirin. This method involves the use of ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS), a density functional theory (DFT)-based crystal structure prediction method for the high-accuracy prediction of polymorphic structures, with DFT calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters and solid-state NMR experiments at natural abundance. AIRSS was used to predict the crystal structures of form-I and form-II of aspirin. The root-mean-square deviation between experimental and calculated 1H chemical shifts was used to identify form-I as the polymorph present in the experimental sample, the selection being successful despite the large similarities between the molecular environments in the crystals of the two polymorphs.  相似文献   
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Krabbe disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by rapid demyelination of nerve fibers. This disease is caused by defects in the lysosomal enzyme β-galactocerebrosidase (GALC), which hydrolyzes the terminal galactose from glycosphingolipids. These lipids are essential components of eukaryotic cell membranes: substrates of GALC include galactocerebroside, the primary lipid component of myelin, and psychosine, a cytotoxic metabolite. Mutations of GALC that cause misfolding of the protein may be responsive to pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT), whereby small molecules are used to stabilize these mutant proteins, thus correcting trafficking defects and increasing residual catabolic activity in cells. Here we describe a new approach for the synthesis of galacto-configured azasugars and the characterization of their interaction with GALC using biophysical, biochemical and crystallographic methods. We identify that the global stabilization of GALC conferred by azasugar derivatives, measured by fluorescence-based thermal shift assays, is directly related to their binding affinity, measured by enzyme inhibition. X-ray crystal structures of these molecules bound in the GALC active site reveal which residues participate in stabilizing interactions, show how potency is achieved and illustrate the penalties of aza/iminosugar ring distortion. The structure–activity relationships described here identify the key physical properties required of pharmacological chaperones for Krabbe disease and highlight the potential of azasugars as stabilizing agents for future enzyme replacement therapies. This work lays the foundation for new drug-based treatments of Krabbe disease.  相似文献   
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What strategy should a football (soccer, in American parlance) club adopt when deciding whether to sack its manager? This paper introduces a simple model assuming that a club's objective is to maximize the number of league points that it scores per season. The club's strategy consists of three choices: the length of the honeymoon period during which it will not consider sacking a new manager, the level of the performance trapdoor below which the manager get the sack, and the weight that it will give to more recent games compared to earlier ones. Some data from the last six seasons of the English Premiership are used to calibrate the model. At this early stage of the research, the best strategy appears to have only a short honeymoon period of eight games (much less than the actual shortest period of 12 games), to set the trapdoor at 0.74 points per game, and to put 47% of the weight on the last five games. A club adopting this strategy would obtain on average 56.8 points per season, compared to a Premiership average of 51.8 points.  相似文献   
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 The paper establishes lower bounds on the provability of 𝒟=NP and the MRDP theorem in weak fragments of arithmetic. The theory I 5 E 1 is shown to be unable to prove 𝒟=NP. This non-provability result is used to show that I 5 E 1 cannot prove the MRDP theorem. On the other hand it is shown that I 1 E 1 proves 𝒟 contains all predicates of the form (∀i≤|b|)P(i,x)^Q(i,x) where ^ is =, <, or ≤, and I 0 E 1 proves 𝒟 contains all predicates of the form (∀ib)P(i,x)=Q(i,x). Here P and Q are polynomials. A conjecture is made that 𝒟 contains NLOGTIME. However, it is shown that this conjecture would not be sufficient to imply 𝒟=N P. Weak reductions to equality are then considered as a way of showing 𝒟=NP. It is shown that the bit-wise less than predicate, ≤2, and equality are both co-NLOGTIME complete under FDLOGTIME reductions. This is used to show that if the FDLOGTIME functions are definable in 𝒟 then 𝒟=N P. Received: 13 July 2001 / Revised version: 9 April 2002 / Published online: 19 December 2002 Key words or phrases: Bounded Arithmetic – Bounded Diophantine Complexity  相似文献   
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We have used Affymetrix gene chips to measure the expression of 10 CESA and 29 CSL genes of Arabidopsis in different developmental stages or organs. These measurements reveal that many of the genes exhibit different levels of expression in the various organs. While several CESA genes are highly expressed in all the tissues examined, very few CSL genes approach such high levels of expression. This suggests that the CSL genes either encode enzymes for the synthesis of minor components of cell walls or are expressed only in specific cell types. The expression data also highlights the potential importance of the CESA genes for primary and secondary cell wall formation during different developmental stages and in the different organs examined.  相似文献   
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There is growing evidence that temporal lobe seizures are preceded by a preictal transition, characterized by a gradual dynamical change from asymptomatic interictal state to seizure. We herein report the first prospective analysis of the online automated algorithm for detecting the preictal transition in ongoing EEG signals. Such, the algorithm constitutes a seizure warning system. The algorithm estimates STLmax, a measure of the order or disorder of the signal, of EEG signals recorded from individual electrode sites. The optimization techniques were employed to select critical brain electrode sites that exhibit the preictal transition for the warning of epileptic seizures. Specifically, a quadratically constrained quadratic 0-1 programming problem is formulated to identify critical electrode sites. The automated seizure warning algorithm was tested in continuous, long-term EEG recordings obtained from 5 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. For individual patient, we use the first half of seizures to train the parameter settings, which is evaluated by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve analysis. With the best parameter setting, the algorithm applied to all cases predicted an average of 91.7% of seizures with an average false prediction rate of 0.196 per hour. These results indicate that it may be possible to develop automated seizure warning devices for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.Mathematics Subject Classification (1991):20E28, 20G40, 20C20  相似文献   
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