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The external photocontrol over peptide folding, by the incorporation of molecular photoswitches into their structure, provides a powerful tool to study biological processes. However, it is limited so far to switches that exhibit only a rather limited geometrical change upon photoisomerization and that show thermal instability of the photoisomer. Here we describe the use of an overcrowded alkene photoswitch to control a model β-hairpin peptide. This photoresponsive unit undergoes a large conformational change and has two thermally stable isomers which has major influence on the secondary structure and the aggregation of the peptide, permitting the phototriggered formation of amyloid-like fibrils.  相似文献   
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The title compound, C19H15N3, was prepared by condensation of 3‐nitroso­carbazole and aniline with subsequent methyl­ation. The structure is built up of stacks of almost planar mol­ecules. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict a completely planar conformation, different from that observed in the crystal lattice. HOMA (harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity) indices, calculated for three aromatic rings, demonstrate the small influence of the azo substituent on π electrons in the carbazole system.  相似文献   
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Minimal basis set ab initio SCF LCAO MO calculations with gaussian-type have been performed for different conformations of the styrene molecule. The computations show the molecule to be planar and the rotational barrier of the vinyl group is estimated to 3.9 kcal/mole.  相似文献   
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Zusammenfassung Eine schnelle und zuverlässige, potentiometrische Titrationsmethode zur Bestimmung von Erbium mit Ammoniumoxalatlösung in wäßrig-acetonischem Medium im Verhältnis 11 wurde ausgearbeitet. Man titriert in dem System Pt | ErCl3 | Hg2Cl2 + KCl | Hg. Der Potentialsprung im Äquivalenzsättigungspunkt ist bereits auf Zugabe eines Tropfens Reagenslösung sehr deutlich. Der Meßfehler überschreitet nicht die Grenzen ±0,5%.Die Methode ist bei Metallionen, die mit Ammoniumoxalat schwerlösliche Niederschläge bilden, nicht anwendbar.
Summary A rapid and accurate method for the potentiometric titration of erbium by means of ammonium oxalate solution in a water-acetone medium (11) has been worked out. The system Pt | ErCl3 | Hg2Cl2 + KCl | Hg was used. The potential jump at the neutral point is distinct, even if only one drop of the reagent is added. The error of the measurement is not greater than ±0,5%- Metal ions forming insoluble precipitates with ammonium oxalate interfere with this method.
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Canonical variables for the generalized (non-metric) Einstein-Cartan theory of gravity are defined. The space of solutions is equipped with a closed differential 2-form . The symplectic 2-form has a diagonal representation in terms of canonical variables. A geometric interpretation of the canonical variables is presented and the 3+1 formulation of the field equations is given.  相似文献   
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The two isomeric compounds 4‐amino‐ONN‐azoxy­benzene [or 1‐(4‐amino­phenyl)‐2‐phenyl­diazene 2‐oxide], i.e. the α isomer, and 4‐amino‐NNO‐azoxy­benzene [or 2‐(4‐amino­phenyl)‐1‐phenyl­diazene 2‐oxide], i.e. the β isomer, both C12H11N3O, crystallized from a polar solvent in orthorhombic space groups, and their crystal and molecular structures have been determined using X‐ray diffraction. There are no significant differences in the bond lengths and valence angles in the two isomers, in comparison with their monoclinic polymorphs. However, the conformations of the mol­ecules are different due to rotation along the Ar—N bonds. In the α isomer, the benzene rings are twisted by 31.5 (2) and 14.4 (2)° towards the plane of the azoxy group; the torsion angles along the Ar—N bond in the β isomer are 24.3 (3) and 23.5 (3)°. Quantum‐mechanical calculations indicate that planar conformations are energetically favourable for both isomers. The N—H?O hydrogen bonds observed in both networks may be responsible for the deformation of these flexible mol­ecules.  相似文献   
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The crystal and molecular structures of two para‐substituted azobenzenes with π‐electron‐donating –NEt2 and π‐electron‐withdrawing –COOEt groups are reported, along with the effects of the substituents on the aromaticity of the benzene ring. The deformation of the aromatic ring around the –NEt2 group in N,N,N′,N′‐tetraethyl‐4,4′‐(diazenediyl)dianiline, C20H28N4, (I), may be caused by steric hindrance and the π‐electron‐donating effects of the amine group. In this structure, one of the amine N atoms demonstrates clear sp2‐hybridization and the other is slightly shifted from the plane of the surrounding atoms. The molecule of the second azobenzene, diethyl 4,4′‐(diazenediyl)dibenzoate, C18H18N2O4, (II), lies on a crystallographic inversion centre. Its geometry is normal and comparable with homologous compounds. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to analyse the changes in the geometry of the studied compounds in the crystalline state and for the isolated molecules. The most significant changes are observed in the values of the N=N—C—C torsion angles, which for the isolated molecules are close to 0.0°. The HOMA (harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity) index, calculated for the benzene ring, demonstrates a slight decrease of the aromaticity in (I) and no substantial changes in (II).  相似文献   
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