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1.
The Boltzmann distribution used in the steady-state analysis of the simulated annealing algorithm gives rise to several scale invariant properties. Scale invariance is first presented in the context of parallel independent processors and then extended to an abstract form based on lumping states together to form new aggregate states. These lumped or aggregate states possess all of the mathematical characteristics, forms and relationships of states (solutions) in the original problem in both first and second moments. These scale invariance properties therefore permit new ways of relating objective function values, conditional expectation values, stationary probabilities, rates of change of stationary probabilities and conditional variances. Such properties therefore provide potential applications in analysis, statistical inference and optimization. Directions for future research that take advantage of scale invariance are also discussed.  相似文献   
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Analysis of Static Simulated Annealing Algorithms   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Generalized hill climbing (GHC) algorithms provide a framework for modeling local search algorithms to address intractable discrete optimization problems. This paper introduces a measure for determining the expected number of iterations to visit a predetermined objective function level, given that an inferior objective function level has been reached in a finite number of iterations. A variation of simulated annealing (SA), termed static simulated annealing (S2A), is analyzed using this measure. S2A uses a fixed cooling schedule during the algorithm execution. Though S2A is probably nonconvergent, its finite-time performance can be assessed using the finite-time performance measure defined in this paper.  相似文献   
4.
We have investigated ion-beam-enhanced diffusion of Au in undoped and B doped amorphous Si. The diffusion coefficients depend linearly on ion flux and exibit an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence with an activation energy of 0.37 eV in the temperature range 200–350° C. Moreover the diffusivity is enhanced by a factor of 5 by B-doping at a concentration of 1×1020 atoms/cm3. A similar enhancement is observed in thermal diffusion of Au which has an activation energy of 1.5 eV. On the basis of these results a model for the ion-beam-enhanced diffusion of Au is proposed where the high density of defects present in amorphous Si act as traps for the fast moving interstitial Au atoms. The effectiveness of this trapping process can be changed by the high concentration of mobile defects generated by the beam and also by a change in the charge state of the traps induced by the presence of B.  相似文献   
5.
For several years, the study of neighborhood unions of graphs has given rise to important structural consequences of graphs. In particular, neighborhood conditions that give rise to hamiltonian cycles have been considered in depth. In this paper we generalize these approaches to give a bound on the smallest number of cycles in G containing all the vertices of G. We show that if for all x, y ? V(G), |N(x) ∩ N(y)| ≧ 2n/5 + 1, then V(G) is coverable by at most two cycles. Several related results and extensions to t cycles are also given.  相似文献   
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Three new Ni(BDC)/2,2'-bipy compounds, Ni2(BDC)(HBDC)2(2,2'-bipy)2 (2), Ni3(BDC)3(2,2'-bipy)2 (3), and Ni(BDC)(2,2-bipy)2.2H2O (5), in addition to the previously reported Ni(BDC)(2,2'-bipy).0.75H2BDC (1) and Ni(BDC)(2,2'-bipy)(H2O) (4) [BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; 2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine], have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions. A systematic investigation of the effect of the reaction temperature and pH resulted in a series of compounds with different compositions and dimensionality. The diverse product slate illustrates the marked sensitivity of the structural chemistry of polycarboxylate aromatic ligands to synthesis conditions. Compound 1, which has a channel structure containing guest H2BDC molecules, is formed at the lowest pH. The guest H2BDC molecules are connected by hydrogen bonds and form extended chains. At a slightly higher pH, a dimeric molecular compound 2 is formed with a lower number of protonated carboxylate groups per nickel atom and per BDC ligand. Reactions at higher temperature and the same pH lead to the transformation of 1 and 2 into the two-dimensional, layered trinuclear compound 3. As the pH is increased, a one-dimensional polymer 4 is formed with a water molecule coordinated to Ni2+. Bis-monodentate and bischelating BDC ligands alternate along the chain to give a crankshaft rather than a regular zigzag arrangement. A further increase of the pH leads to the one-dimensional chain compound 5, which has two chelating 2,2'-bipy ligands. Crystal data: 2, triclinic, space group P, a = 7.4896(9) angstroms, b = 9.912(1) angstroms, c = 13.508(2) angstroms, alpha = 86.390(2) degrees , beta = 75.825(2) degrees, gamma = 79.612(2) degrees, Z = 2; 3, orthorhombic, space group Pbca, a = 9.626(2) angstroms, b = 17.980(3) angstroms, c = 25.131(5) angstroms, Z = 4; 5, orthorhombic, space group Pbcn, a = 14.266(2) angstroms, b = 10.692(2) angstroms, c = 17.171(2) angstroms, Z = 8.  相似文献   
8.
We obtain massive and massless vector two-point functions in maximally symmetric spaces (and vacua) of any number of dimensions. These include de Sitter space and anti-de Sitter space, and their Euclidean analogsS n andH n. Our method is based on a simple way of constructing every possible maximally symmetric bitensorT a...bc...d(x, x) which carries tangent-space indicesa...b atx andc...d atx.  相似文献   
9.
N-Lithio-N-(trialkylsilyl)allylamines can be deprotonated in the presence of ethereal solvents exclusively at the cis-vinylic position to yield 3,N-dilithio-N-(trialkylsilyl)allylamines under mild conditions. Low temperature (1)H and (7)Li NMR ((1)H NOESY, TOCSY, (1)H/(7)Li HSQC, and DO-NMR) studies on the solution structure of 3,N-dilithio-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)allylamine identified three major aggregates in THF (monomer, dimer and tetramer), but the aggregate structures failed to explain the solvent dependence and regiochemical outcome of the reaction. Low temperature (1)H NMR (NOESY, TOCSY, DO-NMR) studies on the solution structure of N-lithio-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)allylamine in the presence of nBuLi identified amide/nBuLi mixed aggregates in both the ethereal solvent THF (1:1 dimer) and the hydrocarbon solvent toluene (1:3 tetramer). Addition of 2 equiv of THF to toluene solutions induces the formation of the same THF solvated 1:1 dimer as observed in neat THF. NMR evidence suggests that in THF the mixed aggregate has close contact between the olefin and the beta-CH(2) of nBuLi, while in the absence of THF, the allyl chain appears to be pointed away from the nearest nBuLi residues.  相似文献   
10.
Specific ion/molecule reactions are demonstrated that distinguish the structures of the following isomeric organosilylenium ions: Si(CH3) 3 + and SiH(CH3)(C2H5)+; Si(CH3)2(C2H5)+ and SiH(C2H5) 2 + ; and Si(CH3)2(i?C3H7)+, Si(CH3)2(n?C3H7)+, Si(CH3)(C2H5) 2 + , and Si(CH3)3(π?C2H4)+. Both methanol and isotopically labeled ethene yield structure-specific reactions with these ions. Methanol reacts with alkylsilylenium ions by competitive elimination of a corresponding alkane or dehydrogenation and yields a methoxysilylenium ion. Isotopically labeled ethene reacts specifically with alkylsilylenium ions containing a two-carbon or larger alkyl substituent by displacement of the corresponding olefin and yields an ethylsilylenium ion. Methanol reactions were found to be efficient for all systems, whereas isotopically labeled ethene reaction efficiencies were quite variable, with dialkylsilylenium ions reacting rapidly and trialkylsilylenium ions reacting much more slowly. Mechanisms for these reactions and differences in the kinetics are discussed.  相似文献   
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