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1.
2.
In this paper we consider a wavelet algorithm for the piecewise constant collocation method applied to the boundary element solution of a first kind integral equation arising in acoustic scattering. The conventional stiffness matrix is transformed into the corresponding matrix with respect to wavelet bases, and it is approximated by a compressed matrix. Finally, the stiffness matrix is multiplied by diagonal preconditioners such that the resulting matrix of the system of linear equations is well conditioned and sparse. Using this matrix, the boundary integral equation can be solved effectively.  相似文献   
3.
Two series of fluorinated polyimides were prepared from 2,2′‐bis(4‐amino‐2‐trifluoromethylphenoxy)biphenyl ( 2 ) and 2,2′‐bis(4‐amino‐2‐trifluoromethylphenoxy)‐1,1′‐binaphthyl ( 4 ) with various aromatic dianhydrides via a conventional, two‐step procedure that included a ring‐opening polyaddition to give poly(amic acid)s, followed by chemical or thermal cyclodehydration. The inherent viscosities of the polyimides ranged from 0.54 to 0.73 and 0.19 to 0.36 dL/g, respectively. All the fluorinated polyimides were soluble in many polar organic solvents, such as N,N‐dimethylacetamide and N‐methylpyrrolidone, and afforded transparent and light‐colored films via solution‐casting. These polyimides showed glass‐transition temperatures in the ranges of 222–280 and 257–351 °C by DSC, softening temperatures in the range of 264–301 °C by thermomechanical analysis, and a decomposition temperature for 10% weight loss above 520 °C both in nitrogen and air atmospheres. The polyimides had low moisture absorptions of 0.23–0.58%, low dielectric constants of 2.84–3.61 at 10 kHz, and an ultraviolet–visible absorption cutoff wavelength at 351–434 nm. Copolyimides derived from the same dianhydrides with an equimolar mixture of 4,4′‐oxydianiline and diamine 2 or 4 were also prepared and characterized. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 2416–2431, 2004  相似文献   
4.
The molecular orientation and strain‐induced crystallization of synthetic rubbers—polyisoprene rubber, polybutadiene rubber, and butyl rubber [poly(isobutylene isoprene)]—during uniaxial deformation were studied with in situ synchrotron wide‐angle X‐ray diffraction. The high intensity of the synchrotron X‐rays and the new data analysis method made it possible to estimate the mass fractions of the strain‐induced crystals and amorphous chain segments in both the oriented and unoriented states. Contrary to the conventional concept, the majority of the molecules (50–75%) remained in an unoriented amorphous state at high strains. Each synthetic rubber showed a different behavior of strain‐induced crystallization and molecular orientation during extension and retraction. Our results confirmed the occurence of strain‐induced networks in the synthetic rubbers due to the inhomogeneity of the crosslink distribution. The strain‐induced networks containing microfibrillar crystals and oriented amorphous tie chains were responsible for the ultimate mechanical properties. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 42: 956–964, 2004  相似文献   
5.
Unique crystallization and melting behavior in poly(aryl ether ketone ketone) containing alternated terephthalic and isophthalic moieties were studied by time-resolved synchrotron x-ray methods. Recently, this material has been shown to exhibit three polymorphs (forms I, II, and III). In this work, we further investigated their distinctive thermal properties and found that form I is the dominating and the most thermally stable phase while form II is favored by fast nucleation conditions and is the least stable phase. On the other hand, form III represents a minor intermediate phase that usually coexists with form I and can be transferred from form II and to form I. Structural and morphological changes in form I have been followed by simultaneous wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD)/small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements during cold- or melt-crystallization and subsequent melting. In all cases, a larger dimensional change was found in the crystallographic a-axis than the b-axis during heating and cooling. This may be due to the greater lateral stress variation with respect to temperature along the a direction of the primary lamellae which is induced by either the formation of secondary lamellae or the preferential chain-folding direction in poly(aryl ether ketone ketone)s. During the phase transitions of form II ← III in the cold-crystallized specimen and form III ← I in the melt-crystallized samples, lamellar variables (long period, lamellar thickness, and invariant) obtained from SAXS remain almost constant. This indicates that the density distribution in the long spacing is independent of the melting in form II or III. For melt-crystallization, the corresponding changes in unit-cell dimensions and lamellar morphology during the annealing-induced low endotherm are most consistent with the argument that these changes are due to the melting of thin lamellar population. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  相似文献   
6.
The aim of this paper is to investigate homomorphisms which reserve square-free languages or primitive languages. A characterization of square-free-preserving homomorphisms is presented. We show that every square-free-preserving homomorphism is primitive-preserving. Strongly cube-free-preserving homomorphisms are also studied.  相似文献   
7.
Two new diamines, 2,4‐diaminotriphenylamine ( 3 ) and N‐(2,4‐diaminophenyl)carbazole ( 4 ), were synthesized via the cesium fluoride‐mediated aromatic substitution reactions of 1‐fluoro‐2,4‐dinitrobenzene with diphenylamine and carbazole, followed by palladium‐catalyzed hydrazine reduction. Amorphous and soluble aramids having pendent diphenylamino and carbazolyl groups were prepared by the phosphorylation polycondensation of aromatic dicarboxylic acids with diamines 3 and 4 , respectively. The aramids derived from diamine 3 had sufficiently high molecular weights to permit the casting of flexible and tough films. They exhibited excellent mechanical properties and moderately high softening temperatures in the 221–298 °C range. However, the reactions of diamine 4 with aromatic diacids gave relatively lower molecular weights products that could not afford flexible films. For a comparative purpose, the parent aramids derived from m‐phenylenediamine and aromatic diacids were also prepared and characterized. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 3302–3313, 2004  相似文献   
8.
 We study a full hydrodynamic semiconductor model in multi-space dimension. The global existence of smooth solutions is established and the exponential stability of the solutions as is investigated. Received November 14, 2000; in revised form March 25, 2002 Published online August 5, 2002  相似文献   
9.
The Au/FePt samples were prepared by depositing a gold cap layer at room temperature onto a fully ordered FePt layer, followed by an annealing at 800 °C for the purpose of interlayer diffusion. After the deposition of the gold layer and the high-temperature annealing, the gold atoms do not dissolve into the FePt Ll0 lattice. Compared with the continuous FePt film, the TEM photos of the bilayer Au(60 nm)/FePt(60 nm) show a granular structure with FePt particles embedded in Au matrix. The coercivity of Au(60 nm)/FePt(60 nm) sample is 23.5 kOe, which is 85% larger than that of the FePt film without Au top layer. The enhancement in coercivity can be attributed to the formation of isolated structure of FePt ordered phase.  相似文献   
10.
The article provides a refinement for the volume-corrected Laplace-Metropolis estimator of the marginal likelihood of DiCiccioet al. The correction volume of probability α in DiCiccioet al. is fixed and suggested to take the value α=0.05. In this article α is selected based on an asymptotic analysis to minimize the mean square relative error (MSRE). This optimal choice of α is shown to be invariant under linear transformations. The invariance property leads to easy implementation for multivariate problems. An implementation procedure is provided for practical use. A simulation study and a real data example are presented.  相似文献   
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