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Despite the development of targeted therapies in cancer, the problem of multidrug resistance (MDR) is still unsolved. Most patients with metastatic cancer die from MDR. Transmembrane efflux pumps as the main cause of MDR have been addressed by developed inhibitors, but early inhibitors of the most prominent and longest known efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were disappointing. Those inhibitors have been used without knowledge about the expression of P-gp by the treated tumor. Therefore the use of inhibitors of transmembrane efflux pumps in clinical settings is reconsidered as a promising strategy in the case of the respective efflux pump expression. We discovered novel symmetric inhibitors of the symmetric efflux pump MRP4 encoded by the ABCC4 gene. MRP4 is involved in many kinds of cancer with resistance to anticancer drugs. All compounds showed better activities than the best known MRP4 inhibitor MK571 in an MRP4-overexpressing cell line assay, and the activities could be related to the various substitution patterns of aromatic residues within the symmetric molecular framework. One of the best compounds was demonstrated to overcome the MRP4-mediated resistance in the cell line model to restore the anticancer drug sensitivity as a proof of concept.  相似文献   
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CYP1A2 is important for metabolizing various clinically used drugs. Phenotyping of CYP1A2 may prove helpful for drug individualization therapy. Several HPLC methods have been developed for quantification of caffeine metabolites in plasma and urine. Aim of the present study was to develop a valid and simple HPLC method for evaluating CYP1A2 activity during exposure in xenobiotics by the use of human saliva. Caffeine and paraxanthine were isolated from saliva by liquid‐liquid extraction (chlorophorm/isopropanol 85/15v/v). Extracts were analyzed by reversed‐phase HPLC on a C18 column with mobile phase 0.1% acetic acid/methanol/acetonitrile (80/20/2 v/v) and detected at 273nm. Caffeine and paraxanthine elution times were <13min with no interferences from impurities or caffeine metabolites. Detector response was linear (0.10–8.00µg/ml, R2>0.99), recovery was >93% and bias <4.47%. Intra‐ and inter‐day precision was <5.14% (n=6). The limit of quantitation was 0.10µg/ml and the limit of detection was 0.018±0.002µg/mL for paraxanthine and 0.032±0.002µg/ml for caffeine. Paraxanthine/caffeine ratio of 34 healthy volunteers was significantly higher in smokers (p<0.001). Saliva paraxanthine/caffeine ratios and urine metabolite ratios were highly correlated (r=0.85, p<0.001). The method can be used for the monitoring of CYP1A2 activity in clinical practice and in studies relevant to exposure to environmental and pharmacological xenobiotics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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In this paper we consider a wavelet algorithm for the piecewise constant collocation method applied to the boundary element solution of a first kind integral equation arising in acoustic scattering. The conventional stiffness matrix is transformed into the corresponding matrix with respect to wavelet bases, and it is approximated by a compressed matrix. Finally, the stiffness matrix is multiplied by diagonal preconditioners such that the resulting matrix of the system of linear equations is well conditioned and sparse. Using this matrix, the boundary integral equation can be solved effectively.  相似文献   
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In circuit-switched networks call streams are characterized by their mean and peakedness (two-moment method). The GI/M/C/0 system is used to model a single link, where the GI-stream is determined by fitting moments appropriately. For the moments of the overflow traffic of a GI/M/C/0 system there are efficient numerical algorithms available. However, for the moments of the freed carried traffic, defined as the moments of a virtual link of infinite capacity to which the process of calls accepted by the link (carried arrival process) is virtually directed and where the virtual calls get fresh exponential i.i.d. holding times, only complex numerical algorithms are available. This is the reason why the concept of the freed carried traffic is not used. The main result of this paper is a numerically stable and efficient algorithm for computing the moments of freed carried traffic, in particular an explicit formula for its peakedness. This result offers a unified handling of both overflow and carried traffics in networks. Furthermore, some refined characteristics for the overflow and freed carried streams are derived.  相似文献   
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The finite-size corrections, central chargesc, and scaling dimensionsx of tricritical hard squares and critical hard hexagons are calculated analytically. This is achieved by solving the special functional equation or inversion identity satisfied by the commuting row transfer matrices of these lattice models at criticality. The results are expressed in terms of Rogers dilogarithms. For tricritical hard squares we obtainc=7/10,x=3/40, 1/5, 7/8, 6/5 and for hard hexagons we obtainc=4/5,x=2/15, 4/5, 17/15, 4/3, 9/5, in accord with the predictions of conformal and modular invariance.  相似文献   
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Aspects of Generic Entanglement   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:0  
We study entanglement and other correlation properties of random states in high-dimensional bipartite systems. These correlations are quantified by parameters that are subject to the ``concentration of measure' phenomenon, meaning that on a large-probability set these parameters are close to their expectation. For the entropy of entanglement, this has the counterintuitive consequence that there exist large subspaces in which all pure states are close to maximally entangled. This, in turn, implies the existence of mixed states with entanglement of formation near that of a maximally entangled state, but with negligible quantum mutual information and, therefore, negligible distillable entanglement, secret key, and common randomness. It also implies a very strong locking effect for the entanglement of formation: its value can jump from maximal to near zero by tracing over a number of qubits negligible compared to the size of the total system. Furthermore, such properties are generic. Similar phenomena are observed for random multiparty states, leading us to speculate on the possibility that the theory of entanglement is much simplified when restricted to asymptotically generic states. Further consequences of our results include a complete derandomization of the protocol for universal superdense coding of quantum states.  相似文献   
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