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1.
Different strategies for the preparation of efficient and robust immobilized biocatalysts are here reviewed. Different physico-chemical approaches are discussed.i.- The stabilization of enzyme by any kind of immobilization on pre-existing porous supports.ii.- The stabilization of enzymes by multipoint covalent attachment on support surfaces.iii.- Additional stabilization of immobilized-stabilized enzyme by physical or chemical modification with polymers.These three strategies can be easily developed when enzymes are immobilized in pre-existing porous supports. In addition to that, these immobilized-stabilized derivatives are optimal to develop enzyme reaction engineering and reactor engineering. Stabilizations ranging between 1000 and 100,000 folds regarding diluted soluble enzymes are here reported.  相似文献   
2.
孔帅  吴敏  聂凡  曾冬梅 《人工晶体学报》2022,51(11):1878-1883
采用磁控溅射法在ITO玻璃上制备了CdZnTe薄膜,探究机械磨抛对CdZnTe薄膜阻变特性的影响。通过对XRD图谱、Raman光谱、AFM显微照片等实验结果分析阐明了机械磨抛影响CdZnTe薄膜阻变特性的物理机制。研究结果表明,磁控溅射制备的薄膜为闪锌矿结构,F43m空间群。机械磨抛提高了CdZnTe薄膜的结晶质量;CdZnTe薄膜粗糙度(Ra)由磨抛前的3.42 nm下降至磨抛后的1.73 nm;磨抛后CdZnTe薄膜透过率和162 cm-1处的类CdTe声子峰振动峰增强;CdZnTe薄膜的阻变开关比由磨抛前的1.2增加到磨抛后的4.9。机械磨抛提高CdZnTe薄膜质量及阻变特性的原因可能是CdZnTe薄膜在磨抛过程中发生了再结晶。  相似文献   
3.
A new series of azomethine-functionalized compounds was synthesized from the condensation of 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediamine and 2-thienylcarboxaldehydes in the presence of a drying agent. The derivatives were spectroscopically characterized by NMR, LC-MS, UV/Vis, IR and elemental analysis. Variable temperature 1H-NMR (−60 to +60 °C) was performed to investigate the effect of solvent polarity; the capability of solvent to form H-bond was found to dramatically influencing the tautomerization process of the desired structures. The calculated thermochemical parameters (ΔH298, ΔG298 and ΔS298) at DFT and MP2 levels of theory explained that 3 b exists in equilibrium with two tautomers. The basis of the electronic absorptions was pursued through Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TD-DFT). Analysis of the structural surfaces was inspected and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) demonstrated that the three functionalized compounds were relatively analogous in the electronic distributions. Furthermore, the electrophilic and nucleophilic centers lying on the molecular surfaces were probably playing a key-role in stabilizing the compounds through the nonclassical C−H⋅⋅⋅π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The impact of solvent polarity on absorption spectra were investigated via solvatochromic shifts. For instance, compound 3 c displayed a gradual shift of the maximum absorption to the red area when the solvent polarity was increased, recording a 21 nm of bathochromic shift. In contrast, no significant solvent-effect on 3 a and 3 b was observed. The solvation relation was pursued between Gutmann's donicity numbers the experimental λmax; exhibited almost positive linear performance with a minor oscillation, that ascribe to the possible weak interface between the molecules of solute and designated solvents. The bandgap energy of all products were assessed experimentally using optical absorption spectra following Tauc approach, giving −4.050 ( 3 a ), −3.900 ( 3 b ) and −3.210 ( 3 c ) eV. However, the ΔE were computationally figured out from TD-DFT simulation to be −4.258 ( 3 a ), −4.022 ( 3 b ) and −3.390 ( 3 c ) eV.  相似文献   
4.
It is important to determine the cause of death in the case of asphyxia. However, it is difficult to conclude death by asphyxia, especially when the deceased has underlying heart disease, because there are often no specific and representative corpse signs for both asphyxia and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential of metabolomics to discriminate asphyxia from SCD as the cause of death. A total of thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were used to construct models of asphyxia, SCD (interfering cause of death), and cervical dislocation (control). Untargeted and widely targeted metabolomics approaches were used to obtain rat pulmonary metabolic profiles in this study. First, the metabolic alterations resulting from asphyxia were explored. There were significant changes found in carbohydrate metabolism, the endocrine system, and the sensory system. Second, we screened potential biomarkers and built classification models to determine the cause of death. Moreover, some biomarkers remained differentiated at 24 h and 48 h postmortem, so the cause of death could still be determined after death. This study showed the application potential of metabolomics to investigate the metabolic changes occurring in the process of death, as well as to determine the cause of death on the basis of metabolic differences even after death.  相似文献   
5.
The surface charge is a key concept in electrochemistry. Mathematically, the surface charge is obtained from a spatial integration of the volume charge along a particular direction. Ambiguities thus arise in choosing the starting and ending points of the integration. As for electrocatalytic interfaces, the presence of chemisorbates further complicates the situation. In this minireview, I adopt a definition of the surface charge within a continuum picture of the electric double layer. I will introduce surface charging behaviors of firstly ordinary electrochemical interfaces and then electrocatalytic interfaces featuring partially charged chemisorbates. Particularly, the origin of nonmonotonic surface charging behaviors of electrocatalytic interfaces is explained using a primitive model. Finally, a brief account of previous studies on the nonmonotonic surface charging behavior is presented, as a subline of the spectacular history of electric double layer.  相似文献   
6.
Carotenoids are an essential component of cashew and can be used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, natural pigment, food additives, among other applications. The present work focuses on optimizing and comparing conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. Every optimization step took place with a 1:1 (w:w) mixture of yellow and red cashew apples lyophilized and ground in a cryogenic mill. A Simplex-centroid design was applied for both methods, and the solvents acetone, methanol, ethanol, and petroleum ether were evaluated. After choosing the extractor solvent, a central composite design was applied to optimize the sample mass (59–201 mg) and extraction time (6–34 min). The optimum conditions for the extractor solvent were 38% acetone, 30% ethanol, and 32% petroleum ether for CE and a mixture of 44% acetone and 56% methanol for UAE. The best experimental conditions for UAE were a sonication time of 19 min and a sample mass of 153 mg, while the CE was 23 min and 136 mg. Comparing red and yellow cashews, red cashews showed a higher carotenoid content in both methodologies. The UAE methodology was ca. 21% faster, presented a more straightforward composition of extracting solution, showed an average yield of superior carotenoid content in all samples compared to CE. Therefore, UAE has demonstrated a simple, efficient, fast, low-cost adjustment methodology and a reliable alternative for other applications involving these bioactive compounds in the studied or similar matrix.  相似文献   
7.
In this paper, the problem of the uniform stability for a class of fuzzy fractional-order genetic regulatory networks with random discrete delays, distributed delays, and parameter uncertainties is studied. Although there is a portion of literature on using fixed point theorems to study the stability of fractional neural networks, most of them required the fractional order to be in 1 2 , 1 . However, the case of the fractional-order belonging to ( 0 , 1 2 ) has not been discussed. To solve it, this work proposes a novel idea of using fixed point theory to study the stability of fuzzy (0,1) order neural networks, the problem of the uniqueness of the solution of the considered genetic regulatory networks is resolved, and a novel sufficient condition to guarantee the uniform stability of above genetic regulatory networks is also derived. Eventually, an example is given to demonstrate that the obtained result is effective.  相似文献   
8.
9.
采用浸渍法制备Fe-VOx/SAPO-34和Fe-VOx/TiO2脱硝催化剂,探究SAPO-34分子筛与TiO2两种载体负载铁钒基氧化物催化活性及抗碱性能的差异。借助X射线衍射(XRD)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、氨气程序升温脱附(NH3-TPD)、氢气程序升温还原(H2-TPR)、原位红外漫反射(in-situ DRIFTs)等表征手段对催化剂的骨架结构、表面物化性质、氧化还原能力以及对反应气体的吸脱附情况进行分析。结果表明:SAPO-34分子筛内部特定的孔道结构和稳定的骨架,有利于活性组分在载体上均匀分散,降低碱金属对表面活性中心的物理覆盖作用;同时其表面丰富的酸位点能够作为碱金属捕获位,保护催化剂表面的活性中心,保证催化剂的吸附-反应过程能够正常进行,从而使Fe-VOx/SAPO-34表现出良好的抗碱金属能力。  相似文献   
10.
掺杂是调控金刚石性能的一种重要手段。本文采用温度梯度法,在5.6 GPa、1 312 ℃的条件下,选用Fe3P作为磷源进行磷掺杂金刚石大单晶的合成。金刚石样品的显微光学照片表明,随着Fe3P添加比例的增加,金刚石晶体的颜色逐渐变深,包裹体数量逐渐增加,晶形由板状转变为塔状直至骸晶。金刚石晶形的变化表明Fe3P的添加使生长金刚石的V形区向右偏移,这是Fe3P改变触媒特性的缘故。红外光谱分析表明,Fe3P的添加使金刚石晶体中氮含量上升,这说明磷的进入诱使氮原子更容易进入金刚石晶格中。激光拉曼光谱测试表明,随着Fe3P添加比例的增加,所合成的掺磷金刚石的拉曼峰位变化不大,其半峰全宽(FWHM)值变大,这说明磷的进入使得金刚石晶格畸变增加。XPS测试结果显示,随着Fe3P添加比例的增加,金刚石晶体中磷相对碳的原子百分含量也会增加,这意味着添加Fe3P所合成的金刚石晶体中有磷存在。  相似文献   
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