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排序方式: 共有416条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
As the application of electrocatalyst continues to expand, envisaging the hidden mechanisms occurring at various length scale affecting the catalytic efficiency became important. To enhance the stability of electrocatalyst and reduce the cost, it is of paramount importance to reveal the active site's dynamics (using in situ techniques for getting the real-time information) which directly affect the reactions such as oxygen evolution reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction, and so on. Since such reactions are crucial for many engineering and scientific applications, in situ characterization techniques are required, which could capture such reactions happening at a different length and time scale. This article analyzes the recent progress made in the field of electrocatalyst's characterization using in situ neutron techniques. The article also paves the future path and has delineated the future challenges involved in multiscale correlative techniques (e.g., neutron techniques in the combination of synchrotron or microscopic techniques) used for getting the multiscale (atomic to micrometer range) mechanistic information about the electrocatalyst's working and degradation.  相似文献   
2.
In the quest for new antibiotics, two novel engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (eCAPs) have been rationally designed. WLBU2 and D8 (all 8 valines are the d -enantiomer) efficiently kill both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, but WLBU2 is toxic and D8 nontoxic to eukaryotic cells. We explore protein secondary structure, location of peptides in six lipid model membranes, changes in membrane structure and pore evidence. We suggest that protein secondary structure is not a critical determinant of bactericidal activity, but that membrane thinning and dual location of WLBU2 and D8 in the membrane headgroup and hydrocarbon region may be important. While neither peptide thins the Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide outer membrane model, both locate deep into its hydrocarbon region where they are primed for self-promoted uptake into the periplasm. The partially α-helical secondary structure of WLBU2 in a red blood cell (RBC) membrane model containing 50 % cholesterol, could play a role in destabilizing this RBC membrane model causing pore formation that is not observed with the D8 random coil, which correlates with RBC hemolysis caused by WLBU2 but not by D8.  相似文献   
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4.
We show that [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) at the surface of thin film blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):PC61BM can be patterned by water. Using a series of heating and cooling steps, water droplets condense onto the blend film surface. This is possible due to the liquid-like, water swollen layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate. Breath pattern water deformation and subsequent drying on the film surface results in isolated PC61BM structures, showing that migration of PC61BM takes place. This was confirmed by selective wavelength illumination to spatially map the photoluminescence from the P3HT and PC61BM. Within a device, redistribution of the surface PC61BM into aggregates would be catastrophic, as it would markedly alter device performance. We also postulate that repeated volume change of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate layer by water swelling may be, in part, responsible for the delamination failure mechanism in thin film solar cells devices. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 141–146  相似文献   
5.
The thermal stability and molecular order in monolayers of two organic semiconductors, PBI‐PA and PBI‐alkyl, based on perylene derivatives with an identical molecular structure except for an anchor group for attachment to the substrate in PBI‐PA, are reported. In situ X‐ray reflectivity measurements are used to follow the stability of these monolayers in terms of order and thickness as temperature is increased. Films have thicknesses corresponding approximately to the length of one molecule; molecules stand upright on the substrate with a defined structure. PBI‐PA monolayers have a high degree of order at room temperature and a stable film exists up to 250 °C, but decomposes rapidly above 300 °C. In contrast, stable physisorbed PBI‐alkyl monolayers only exist up to 100 °C. Above the bulk melting point at 200 °C no more order exists. The results encourage using anchor groups in monolayers for various applications as it allows enhanced stability at the interface with the substrate.  相似文献   
6.
魏政鸿  云峰  丁文  黄亚平  王宏  李强  张烨  郭茂峰  刘硕  吴红斌 《物理学报》2015,64(12):127304-127304
研究了Ag的厚度、退火时间、沉积温度对于Ni/Ag/Ti/Au电极的反射率及与p-GaN欧姆接触性能的影响. 利用分光光度计测量反射率, 采用圆形传输线模型计算比接触电阻率. 结果表明: 随着Ag厚度的增加, Ni/Ag/Ti/Au电极的反射率逐渐增大; 在氧气氛围中, 随着退火时间从1 min增至10 min, 300 ℃退火时, 比接触电阻率持续下降, 而对于400-600 ℃退火, 比接触电阻率先减小后增大; 在300和400 ℃氧气中进行1-10 min 的退火后, Ni/Ag/Ti/Au的反射率变化较小, 退火温度高于400 ℃时, 随着退火时间的增加, 反射率急剧下降; 在400 ℃氧气中3 min退火后, 比接触电阻率可以达到3.6×10-3 Ω·cm2. 此外, 适当提高沉积温度可以增加Ni/Ag/Ti/Au的反射率并降低比接触电阻率, 沉积温度为120 ℃条件下的Ni/Ag/Ti/Au电极在450 nm处反射率达到90.1%, 比接触电阻率为6.4×10-3 Ω·cm2. 综合考虑电学和光学性能, 在沉积温度为120 ℃下蒸镀Ni/Ag/Ti/Au (1/200/100/100 nm)并在400 ℃氧气中进行3 min退火可以得到较优化的电极. 利用此电极制作的垂直结构发光二极管在350 mA电流下的工作电压为2.95 V, 输出光功率为387.1 mW, 电光转换效率达到37.5%.  相似文献   
7.
The “far‐field” surface plasmon resonance (FSPR) of metal nanoparticles, which have built a facile way to emission enhancement of red, green, blue, and white with nice reproducibility, has big potential application in solution‐processed organic light‐emitting diodes (OLEDs). According to the theory of the “far‐field” effect, the reflectivity of the metal surface and the phase shift at the reflection play an important role in enhancing ratio, which strongly relate to the size and shape of nanoparticles. In this work, gold nanospheres with different sizes and nanorods are synthesized in order to determine the size and shape effect of FSPR. The results demonstrate that the one with higher reflectivity in a certain range induces a better emission enhancement in the luminous efficiency and the maximum brightness. The nanoparticles with bigger sizes and shape of rods have higher reflectivity, which is consistent with the simulation based on FSPR effect. The phase shifts of different nanoparticles are optimized by the distance between gold nanoparticles and emitters. The metal NPs with a high reflectivity and the applicable phase shift will have big potential for the emission enhancement in OLEDs.  相似文献   
8.
B. Knuth  F. Hensel 《高压研究》2013,33(1-6):552-554
Abstract

The density dependence of the optical properties of expanded cesium has been investigated by means of reflectivity measurements in the range 0.5 – 4.0 eV. The dielectric functions ?1 (ω) and ?2(ω) have been derived by means of a modified Kramers-Kronig analysis. The data give useful information about the variation of the electronic structure of liquid cesium with large changes in density, large enough to reveal the existence of precursors of the metal-nonmental transition.  相似文献   
9.
The review addresses swelling of polyelectrolyte multilayers in water. Different models for the determination of the water content are compared. It is clearly shown that voids under dry conditions present cavities for water which contribute to the water content of the multilayer in the swollen state. This so-called “void water” does not lead to any changes in thickness but in scattering length density during swelling. The “swelling water” leads to both changes in scattering length density and in thickness. Depending on the preparation conditions like the type polymers, polymer charge density, ionic strength and type of salt the ratio of “void water” differs between 1 and 15 vol.% while the amount of “swelling water” is of several ten's of vol.%.  相似文献   
10.
In this work, we parallelly detected the specific binding between microarray targets including 12 different kinds of proteins and the probe solution containing five corresponding antibodies and quantitatively analyzed the interactions between CDH13 and solution phase anti-CDH13 at six different probe concentrations by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) method in label-free format. The detection sensitivity reached 10 ng/mL. The experimental results indicate that the OIRD method is a promising and competing technique not only in research work but also in clinic.  相似文献   
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