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1.
Kainic acid, the flagship member of the kainoid family of natural neurochemicals, is a widely used neuropharmacological agent that helped unravel the key role of ionotropic glutamate receptors, including the kainate receptor, in the central nervous system. Worldwide shortages of this seaweed natural product in the year 2000 prompted numerous chemical syntheses, including scalable preparations with as few as six‐steps. Herein we report the discovery and characterization of the concise two‐enzyme biosynthetic pathway to kainic acid from l ‐glutamic acid and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate in red macroalgae and show that the biosynthetic genes are co‐clustered in genomes of Digenea simplex and Palmaria palmata. Moreover, we applied a key biosynthetic α‐ketoglutarate‐dependent dioxygenase enzyme in a biotransformation methodology to efficiently construct kainic acid on the gram scale. This study establishes both the feasibility of mining seaweed genomes for their biotechnological prowess.  相似文献   
2.
Endophytic fungi were isolated from red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis - Falkenbergia stage, collected from the Brazilian coast, and were identified as Annulohypoxylon stygium (AT-03) and A. yungensis (AT-06) based on their macro/micromorphological and molecular features. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from laboratory cultures of both strains yielded known compounds pyrogallol from A. stygium, (3R)-scytalone and (3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-scytalone from A. yungensis. Pyrogallol was active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli strains. An inactive fraction from A. stygium afforded two additional compounds, (3R,4R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-1-tetralone and tyrosol. Optically active compounds had their stereochemistry determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy.  相似文献   
3.
We report the growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), fabrication and characterization of silicon doped 20 layer InAs dot in a well quantum dot infrared photo detector (DWELL-QDIP) device structures. Two structures with InAs dots of vertical heights of 50 Å and 40 Å were compared. A 2–8 μm band normal incidence photo response of the detector with polarization and bias dependence was obtained at 77 K. The specific peak detectivity D1 be 0.8 × 109 Jones for one of the detectors.  相似文献   
4.
Though numerous valuable compounds from red algae already experience high demand in medicine, nutrition, and different branches of industry, these organisms are still recognized as an underexploited resource. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the chemical composition of 15 Arctic red algal species from the perspective of their practical relevance in medicine and the food industry. We show that several virtually unstudied species may be regarded as promising sources of different valuable metabolites and minerals. Thus, several filamentous ceramialean algae (Ceramium virgatum, Polysiphonia stricta, Savoiea arctica) had total protein content of 20–32% of dry weight, which is comparable to or higher than that of already commercially exploited species (Palmaria palmata, Porphyra sp.). Moreover, ceramialean algae contained high amounts of pigments, macronutrients, and ascorbic acid. Euthora cristata (Gigartinales) accumulated free essential amino acids, taurine, pantothenic acid, and floridoside. Thalli of P. palmata and C. virgatum contained the highest amounts of the nonproteinogenic amino acid β-alanine (9.1 and 3.2 μM g−1 DW, respectively). Several red algae tend to accumulate heavy metals; although this may limit their application in the food industry, it makes them promising candidates for phytoremediation or the use as bioindicators.  相似文献   
5.
ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (ABO-HDN), which may cause neonatal jaundice and polycythemia, or even stillbirth or neonatal death, is widespread in China. Prenatal testing for the fetal ABO blood group can reduce unnecessary concerns or ensure prompt treatment. Herein, we presented a method to employ high-density silica microbeads (SiO2 MBs) for capturing fetal nucleated red blood cells (fnRBCs) in maternal peripheral blood, and we detected the ABO genotype of the fetus using these captured cells. We evaluated 52 patients using the SiO2 MBs. Among 26 pregnant women with type O blood, 8 (30.8%) of the fetuses had type A blood, 5 (19.2%) had type B blood, and 13 (50%) had type O blood. SRY genes were detected in all 27 male fetuses. This study represents a simple and effective method for noninvasive prenatal detection of the fetal ABO genotype. We believe that this method has great potential for noninvasive prenatal testing of the fetal Rh blood group and other fetal diseases as well.  相似文献   
6.
Pure organic molecules based thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters have been successfully developed in recent years for their propitious application in highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In the case of orange red emitters, the non-radiative process is known to be a serious issue due to its lower lying singlet energy level. However, recent studies indicate that there are tremendous efforts put to develop efficient orange red TADF emitters. In addition, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of heteroaromatic based orange red TADF OLEDs surpassed 30 %. Such heteroaromatic type emitters showed wide emission spectra; therefore, more attention is being paid to develop highly efficient orange red TADF emitters along with good color purity. Herein, the recent progress of orange red TADF emitters based on molecular structures, such as cyanobenzene, heteroaromatic, naphthalimide, and boron-based acceptors, are reviewed. Further, our insight on these acceptors has been provided by their photophysical studies and device performances. Future perspectives of orange red TADF emitters for real practical applications are discussed.  相似文献   
7.
Abstract

Experimental studies conducted on some species of Mediterranean red algae allowed to identify Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse as a valid alternative to the Pacific alga Gloiopeltis furcata (Postels & Ruprecht) J. Agardh, for the extraction of a material usable as natural consolidant and adhesive in the field of restoration. Promising results have been observed by comparing the extracts obtained from these two algae after the same extraction procedure. Chemical analysis (FTIR) revealed that S. coronopifolius has qualities similar to G. furcata. Even more promising results for S. coronopifolius compared to G. furcata were observed after the analysis of pH and conductivity, and the adhesion tests carried out on both extracts.  相似文献   
8.
Using aqueous extraction of red sanders powder as a reducing agent, silver and copper bimetallic nanoparticles were in situ generated in cotton fabrics. Silver and copper nanoparticles were also generated separately for comparison. The resulted nanocomposite cotton fabrics (NCFs) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and antibacterial tests. SEM analysis indicated the generation of more number of nanoparticles when bimetallic source solutions were used. Further, the size range of the generated bimetallic nanoparticles was found to be lower than when individual metal nanoparticles were generated in NCFs. XRD analysis confirmed the in situ generation of silver and copper nanoparticles when equimolar bimetallic salt source solutions were utilized. The NCFs with bimetallic nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and hence can be considered for applications as antibacterial bed and dressing materials.  相似文献   
9.
The detection of Allura red (AR) by electrochemical reduction using a different electrode from the conventional mercury electrode is presented. A carbon paste with cobalt (II, III) oxide composite electrode (CoOx/CPE) is reported for the first time for the detection of AR. Moreover, others dyes such as tartrazine (TZ), sunset yellow (SY), amaranth (AM), Ponceaut 4‐R (P‐4R), and Sudan (SD) as well as pharmaceutical agents such as paracetamol (PMC) that are present in samples that contained AR did not show a reduced signal between 0.0 and ?0.3 V, which is the potential range where AR reduction was observed. The surface electroactivity was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of CoOX increased the cathodic peak current for AR by more than 50 % and 65 % via CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV), respectively, compared with an unmodified carbon paste electrode. Under the optimal parameters, (pH=3.0, accumulation time (tACC)=60 s and accumulation potential (EACC)=0.50 V), the detection limit for AR was 0.05 μmol L?1. The new sensor was sensitive and stable for the detection of AR. Moreover, it was easily manufactured and very convenient for food samples such as soft and isotonic drinks as well as chili sauce.  相似文献   
10.
In this study, the electronic structures and optical properties of a cyclometalated Pt(II) complex (M1) and a series of derivatives (M1–F, M1–CF3, and M1–CN) with electron-withdrawing substituents (–F, –CF3, and –CN) at the carbazole moiety were theoretically investigated by density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. The calculation results reveal that these Pt complexes display deep red phosphorescence emission above Λ = 640 nm. When the 3MLCT/π → π* to triplet metal-centered 3MC/d–d state decay mechanism is taken into consideration, the nonradiative decay rate constant (knr) decreased in the order M1 > M1–CF3 > M1–F > M1–CN. The <T1|HSOC|Sm> and kr values of M1-F are similar with those of M1, however the Knr rate ofM1-F is larger than that of M1. M1–F is expected to have improved quantum yields. Moreover, through the analyses of the HOMO/LUMO level and triplet energy, it is found that the introduction of –F and –CN substituents in M1 results in efficient energy transfer from the host material 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl to these complexes. In view of the electroluminescent applications in organic light-emitting diodes, M1–F can serve as efficient deep-red guest materials with improved electron injection and transport ability.  相似文献   
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