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1.
Carotenoids are an essential component of cashew and can be used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, natural pigment, food additives, among other applications. The present work focuses on optimizing and comparing conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. Every optimization step took place with a 1:1 (w:w) mixture of yellow and red cashew apples lyophilized and ground in a cryogenic mill. A Simplex-centroid design was applied for both methods, and the solvents acetone, methanol, ethanol, and petroleum ether were evaluated. After choosing the extractor solvent, a central composite design was applied to optimize the sample mass (59–201 mg) and extraction time (6–34 min). The optimum conditions for the extractor solvent were 38% acetone, 30% ethanol, and 32% petroleum ether for CE and a mixture of 44% acetone and 56% methanol for UAE. The best experimental conditions for UAE were a sonication time of 19 min and a sample mass of 153 mg, while the CE was 23 min and 136 mg. Comparing red and yellow cashews, red cashews showed a higher carotenoid content in both methodologies. The UAE methodology was ca. 21% faster, presented a more straightforward composition of extracting solution, showed an average yield of superior carotenoid content in all samples compared to CE. Therefore, UAE has demonstrated a simple, efficient, fast, low-cost adjustment methodology and a reliable alternative for other applications involving these bioactive compounds in the studied or similar matrix.  相似文献   
2.
We discuss the length of the longest directed cycle in the sparse random digraph , constant. We show that for large there exists a function such that a.s. The function where is a polynomial in . We are only able to explicitly give the values , although we could in principle compute any .  相似文献   
3.
In this article, a way to employ the diffusion approximation to model interplay between TCP and UDP flows is presented. In order to control traffic congestion, an environment of IP routers applying AQM (Active Queue Management) algorithms has been introduced. Furthermore, the impact of the fractional controller PIγ and its parameters on the transport protocols is investigated. The controller has been elaborated in accordance with the control theory. The TCP and UDP flows are transmitted simultaneously and are mutually independent. Only the TCP is controlled by the AQM algorithm. Our diffusion model allows a single TCP or UDP flow to start or end at any time, which distinguishes it from those previously described in the literature.  相似文献   
4.
《中国物理 B》2021,30(5):56501-056501
Thermal expansion control is always an obstructive factor and challenging in high precision engineering field. Here,the negative thermal expansion of Nb F_3 and Nb OF_2 was predicted by first-principles calculation with density functional theory and the quasi-harmonic approximation(QHA). We studied the total charge density, thermal vibration, and lattice dynamic to investigate the thermal expansion mechanism. We found that the presence of O induced the relatively strong covalent bond in Nb OF_2, thus weakening the transverse vibration of F and O in Nb OF_2, compared with the case of Nb F_3.In this study, we proposed a way to tailor negative thermal expansion of metal fluorides by introducing the oxygen atoms.The present work not only predicts two NTE compounds, but also provides an insight on thermal expansion control by designing chemical bond type.  相似文献   
5.
Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B - In the present article, the authors find and establish stability of multiplier ideal sheaves, which is more general than strong openness.  相似文献   
6.
The synthesis and characterizations for a series of dinuclear gold (I)-di-NHC complexes, 1–8 through the trans-metalation method of their respective silver (I)-di-NHC complexes, i–viii are reported (where NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene). The successful complexation of a series of unusual non-symmetrical and symmetrical di-NHC ligands, 3,3'-(ethane-1,2-diyl)-1-alkylbenzimidazolium-1'-butylbenzimidazolium (with alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, benzyl) with the gold (I) ions are suggested by elemental analysis, Fourier transform-infrared, 1H- and 13C-NMR data. The 13C-NMR spectra of 1–8 show a singlet sharp peak in the range of 190.00–192.00 ppm, indicating the presence of a carbene carbon that bonded to the gold (I) ion. From single crystal X-ray diffraction data, the structure of complex 6 with the formula of [di-NHC-Au (I)]2·2PF6 is obtained [where NHC = 3,3'-(ethane-1,2-diyl)-1-hexylbenzimidazolium-1'-butylbenzimidazolium]. The photophysical study in solid state of 6 displays an intense photoluminescence with a strong emission maxima, λem = 480 nm, upon excitation at 340 nm at room temperature. Interestingly, the emission maximum at 77 K shows a structural character with a strong peak at 410 nm, a medium at 433 nm and a weak at 387 nm, accompanied by a tail band to about 500 nm.  相似文献   
7.
Huihui Zhu 《代数通讯》2018,46(8):3388-3396
Let R be an associative ring with unity 1 and let a,b,cR. In this paper, several characterizations for hybrid (b,c)-inverses of a are given. Also, the hybrid (b,c)-inverse of a is characterized by the group inverse of ab, under certain hypothesis. In particular, existence criteria for the the inverse along an element are obtained. Finally, we get the double commutant property and the reverse order law of annihilator (b,c)-inverses.  相似文献   
8.
In this paper, the complete convergence and the complete moment convergence for extended negatively dependent (END, in short) random variables without identical distribution are investigated. Under some suitable conditions, the equivalence between the moment of random variables and the complete convergence is established. In addition, the equivalence between the moment of random variables and the complete moment convergence is also proved. As applications, the Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund-type strong law of large numbers and the Baum-Katz-type result for END random variables are established. The results obtained in this paper extend the corresponding ones for independent random variables and some dependent random variables.  相似文献   
9.
Finite dimensional ribbon Hopf(super) algebras play an important role in constructing invariants of 3-manifolds. In the present paper, the authors give a necessary and sufficient condition for the Drinfeld double of a finite dimensional Hopf superalgebra to have a ribbon element. The criterion can be seen as a generalization of Kauffman and Radford's result in the non-super situation to the ■_2-graded situation, however, the derivation of the result in the ■_2-graded case will be much more complicated.  相似文献   
10.
Planetary gearboxes are widely used in industrial machines. They usually work in harsh environments giving rise to damages and high maintenance costs. Condition monitoring is a key action allowing one to detect the presence of such damage ensuring healthy running conditions. The knowledge of the dynamic behavior of such a gearbox can be achieved using modeling tools as a primary step before conditioning the monitoring subject. In addition, modeling a gear set can help in the stage of design in order to optimize physical and geometric parameters of the system. Therefore, in this work, a two-dimensional lumped parameter model is adopted to build all vibration sources. The time-varying mesh stiffness is approximated as a square wave form. A novel mathematical formulation is proposed to model the amplitude modulation phenomenon due to the rotational motion of the planets around the center of the gearbox. Finally, the overall vibration signal is concluded as a summation of all vibration components influenced by the modulation function.  相似文献   
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