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1.
Macroscopic properties of carbon fiber‐reinforced plastic (CFRP) and environmental barrier coating (EBC), widely used for airplanes, can be deteriorated by local cracks or degradation (“trigger sites”). We have tried to find these trigger sites using x‐ray microscopy (XM), which can provide the 2D or 3D images of the chemical states and microstructures. Crack initiation in CFRP was observed in a non‐destructive manner in multi‐scales (nm‐mm). 3D chemical‐state mapping of Yb in EBC was achieved with high resolution (<50 nm). In addition to XM, in‐situ observations at high temperatures were conducted for obtaining complementary information. X‐ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x‐ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were performed simultaneously up to 1773 K. Dynamic XAS with short time‐resolution (<10 ns) was conducted to investigate changes in the local structure of metal. These approaches can help us identify degradation trigger sites in the materials.  相似文献   
2.
As density is one of the basic physical properties of materials, an accurate density standard is absolutely essential. To determine density with high accuracy and precision, two 1-kg single-crystal silicon spheres (NMIJ-S4 and NMIJ-S5) are used as the primary standard at the National Metrology Institute of Japan. For the accurate measurement of the mass and volume of the silicon spheres, the effects of the surface layer must be carefully considered. In this work, a surface layer model of NMIJ-S4 and NMIJ-S5 was proposed and the thicknesses of each surface layer were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A detailed uncertainty budget is presented to aid use of the density standard.  相似文献   
3.
Some of the challenges with detection of ultra-low concentrations of analytes are to achieve sufficient sensitivity of the measurement and to direct the analyte species to the sensor (electrode) surface. This review describes various strategies that are available to address these challenges: method of electrocatalytic amplification, electrochemical measurements performed in combination with electrokinetic preconcentration of analytes, ultra-sensitive analysis utilizing increased surface area and also the manipulation by the magnetic force.  相似文献   
4.
We report the precise postsynthetic control of the composition of β‐Fe1+xSe by electrochemistry with simultaneous tracking of the associated structural changes via in situ synchrotron X‐ray diffraction. We access the full phase width of 0.01<x<0.04 and identify the superconducting state below 8 K, which in contrast to earlier reports is independent of the composition. However, in a second set of in situ X‐ray diffraction experiments, we demonstrate that β‐Fe1+xSe forms a new phase in the presence of oxygen above a 100 °C which has the same anti‐PbO type structure but is not superconducting down to 1.8 K. The latter process can be reversed electrochemically to reinstate the superconducting state. These observations exploit the exquisite control afforded by electrochemistry in contrast with classical approaches of chemical synthesis.  相似文献   
5.
相干anti-Stokes Raman散射(coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,CARS)技术作为一种非接触测量手段,已广泛应用于多种发动机模型燃烧室温度测量及地面试验.然而,目前的工作主要集中在稳态燃烧场温度的测量,缺乏用高分辨率的单脉冲来测量瞬变的燃烧火焰温度及组分浓度的研究.基于CARS理论,结合多参数拟合算法,开发了基于MATLAB的CARS光谱计算和拟合程序CARSCF;利用McKenna平面火焰炉在不同工况下进行了温度测量,并与DLR测量结果进行对比,结果显示开发的CARSCF具有较高的测量重复性和准确性;最后将CARS技术应用于测量超燃冲压发动机点火过程中的温度测量,获取了点火过程中的温度.结果显示,在来流Mach数为3的条件下,H2/air点火过程中温度呈现急剧上升然后缓慢下降,而CARS信号则呈现急剧上升然后急剧下降随后又缓慢上升的趋势,并且在点火过程中最高温度为1 511 K.   相似文献   
6.
大气压空气电火花激波等离子体射流的电子密度在亚微秒时间尺度上瞬变,其电子密度的测定很难.基于微波瑞利散射原理,本文测量了空气电火花冲击波流注放电等离子体射流的时变电子密度.实验结果表明:测量系统的标定参数A为1.04 × 105 V·Ω·m–2;空气流注放电等离子体射流的电子密度与等离子体射流的半径和长度有关,结合高速放电影像展示的等离子体射流的等效半径和等效长度,测定的电子密度在1020 m–3的量级,且随时间先快速增长至峰值再成指数衰减.此外,本文还探讨了等离子体射流的不同等效尺度对测定结果的影响;分析结果表明,采用时变等效半径和时变等效长度的计算结果最有效,且第1个快速波峰是由光电离的电离波导致的.  相似文献   
7.
The dynamic characteristics of measured uncertainty and quantum coherence are explored for an inertial Unruh–DeWitt detector model in an expanding de Sitter space. Using the entropic uncertainty relation, the uncertainty of interest is correlated with the evolving time t, the energy level spacing δ, and the Hubble parameter H. The investigation shows that, for short time, a strong energy level spacing and small Hubble parameter can result in a relatively small uncertainty. The evolution of quantum coherence versus the evolving time and Hubble parameter, which varies almost inversely to that of the uncertainty, is then discussed, and the relationship between uncertainty and the coherence is explicitly derived. With respect to the l1 norm of coherence, it is found that the environment for the quantum system considered possesses a strong non-Markovian property. The dynamic behavior of coherence non-monotonously decreases with the growth of evolving time. The dynamic features of uncertainty and coherence in the expanding space with those in flat space are also compared. Furthermore, quantum weak measurement is utilized to effectively reduce the magnitude of uncertainty, which offers realistic and important support for quantum precision measurements during the undertaking of quantum tasks.  相似文献   
8.
We review the continuous monitoring of a qubit through its spontaneous emission, at an introductory level. Contemporary experiments have been able to collect the fluorescence of an artificial atom in a cavity and transmission line, and then make measurements of that emission to obtain diffusive quantum trajectories in the qubit's state. We give a straightforward theoretical overview of such scenarios, using a framework based on Kraus operators derived from a Bayesian update concept; we apply this flexible framework across common types of measurements including photodetection, homodyne, and heterodyne monitoring and illustrate its equivalence to the stochastic master equation formalism throughout. Special emphasis is given to homodyne (phase-sensitive) monitoring of fluorescence. The examples we develop are used to illustrate basic methods in quantum trajectories, but also to introduce some more advanced topics of contemporary interest, including the arrow of time in quantum measurement, and trajectories following optimal measurement records derived from a variational principle. The derivations we perform lead directly from the development of a simple model to an understanding of recent experimental results.  相似文献   
9.
Owing to the lack of specific symptoms, diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) may be delayed. We evaluated volatile organic compounds in tumor samples from patients suffering from HNSCC and tested the hypothesis that there is a characteristic altered composition in the headspace of HNSCC compared with control samples from the same patient with normal squamous epithelium. These results provide the basis for future noninvasive breath analysis in HNSCC. Headspace air of suspected tumor and contralateral control samples in 20 patients were analyzed using ion-mobility spectrometry. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 16 patients. In total, we observed 93 different signals in headspace measurements. Squamous cell carcinomas revealed significantly higher levels of volatile cyclohexanol (0.54 ppbv, 25th to 75th percentiles 0.35–0.86) compared with healthy squamous epithelium (0.24 ppbv, 25th to 75th percentiles 0.12–0.3; p < 0.001). In conclusion, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma emitted significantly higher levels of volatile cyclohexanol in headspace compared with normal squamous epithelium. These findings form the basis for future breath analysis for diagnosis, therapy control and the follow-up of HNSSC to improve therapy and aftercare.  相似文献   
10.
利用单相机所采集的图像实现了对光滑高反射表面面形的直接检测.首先利用相机获取参考平面在标准平面镜中的镜像,然后通过参考平面上的点与归一化成像平面上图像点之间的密集折返对应关系,求得待测镜面的深度距离,从而实现对高反射表面面形的测量.通过光线追迹将该测量过程转化为求解物空间中关于两对应光线束之间的相交问题.以相位为载体获取面形梯度分布,求得该表面的法向量场,并求解相应的反射光线束.通过光线追迹对该光线束与相应入射光线束求“交点”检测高反射表面.对标准平面镜进行实验检测,测量得到的面形平面度为0.19 mm.采用传统方法与本文所提方法对汽车后视镜进行检测,所得检测结果对应点之间的平均距离为0.15 mm,验证了本文方法检测镜面面形的有效性.  相似文献   
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