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1.
Laser ablation in liquids is growing in popularity for various applications including nanoparticle production, breakdown spectroscopy, and surface functionalization. When laser pulse ablates the solid target submerged in liquid, a cavitation bubble develops. In case of “finite” geometries of ablated solids, liquid dynamical phenomena can occur inside the bubble when the bubble overflows the surface edge. To observe this dynamics, we use diffuse illumination of a flashlamp in combination with a high-speed videography by exposure times down to 250 ns. The developed theoretical modelling and its comparison with the experimental observations clearly prove that this approach widens the observable area inside the bubble. We thereby use it to study the dynamics of laser-induced cavitation bubble during its expansion over a sharp-edge (“cliff-like” 90°) geometry submerged in water, ethanol, and polyethylene glycol 300. The samples are 17 mm wide stainless steel plates with thickness in the range of 0.025–2 mm. Bubbles are induced on the samples by 1064-nm laser pulses with pulse durations of 7–60 ns and pulse energies of 10–55 mJ. We observe formation of a fixed-type secondary cavity behind the edge where low-pressure area develops due to bubble-driven flow of the liquid. This occurs when the velocity of liquid overflow exceeds ~20 m s−1. A re-entrant liquid injection with up to ~40 m s−1 velocity may occur inside the bubble when the bubble overflows the edge of the sample. Formation and characteristics of the jet evidently depend on the relation between the breakdown-edge offset and the bubble energy, as well as the properties of the surrounding liquid. Higher viscosity of the liquid prevents the generation of the jet.  相似文献   
2.
Experiments were carried out to observe the effect of a magnetic field and grid biasing voltage in presence of a plasma bubble in a magnetized, filamentary discharge plasma system. A spherical mesh grid of 80% optical transparency was negatively biased and introduced into the plasma for creating a plasma bubble. Diagnostics via an electrical Langmuir probe and a hot emissive probe were extensively used for scanning the plasma bubble. Plasma floating potential fluctuations were measured at three different positions of the plasma bubble. The instability in the pattern showed the dynamic transition from periodic to chaotic for increasing magnetic fields. Time scale analysis using continuous wavelet transform was carried out to identify the presence of non‐linearity from the contour plots. The mechanisms of the low‐frequency instabilities along with the transition to chaos could be qualitatively explained. Non‐linear techniques such as fast Fourier transform, phase space plot, and recurrence plot were used to explore the dynamics of the system appearing during plasma fluctuations. In order to demonstrate the observed chaotic phenomena in this study, characteristics of chaos such as the Lyapunov exponent were obtained from experimental time series data. The experimentally observed potential structure is confirmed with numerical analysis based on fluid hydrodynamics.  相似文献   
3.
Microshells are attractive in constructing bubble‐propelled micromotors due to the lower energy consumption for bubbles forming on a concave surface. In this work, enzyme‐powered microshell motors were fabricated on multimetallic (Au/Ag/Au) microshells along with the modification of catalase on its concave surface. The catalase triggered the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen gas, hence propelling the autonomous motion of microshell motors. A size‐dependent motion behaviour was observed for the microshell motors in the form of slow tremble and fast translation motion for a size smaller and larger than 5 μm, respectively, according to the size, generation efficiency and ejection mechanism of bubbles and the intensity of Brownian motion. In addition, the effect of fuel concentration on the motion speed of microshells was dependent on whether the bubble generation was affected by the limited mass transfer in the microshell space. These findings play an important role for the design of microshell motors.  相似文献   
4.
对于具有复杂几何形态的多面体单元,线性接触模型不能准确地计算不同接触模式下的作用力,且接触变形和作用力方向也不易判断.基于闵可夫斯基和(Minkowski sum)方法的扩展多面体单元能够准确描述非规则颗粒单元的几何形态,并可精确计算单元间的接触碰撞作用.该方法具有接触判断简单、计算效率高的特点.它将基本多面体和扩展球体相叠加以形成具有光滑棱边和角点的扩展多面体单元.考虑扩展多面体单元相互作用过程中角点、棱边和平面之间的不同接触模式,发展了相应的非线性黏弹性接触模型. 该接触模型将不同接触模型下的法向刚度统一表述为单元接触中接触点处等效曲率半径的函数;黏滞力和切向弹性力接触模型则借鉴球体单元非线性接触模型的处理方法. 为检验扩展多面体的可靠性,对碎冰区冰块对圆桩结构的冰载荷进行了离散元分析. 采用沃洛诺伊(Voronoi)切割算法获得了碎冰的初始随机分布状态,并考虑了海冰在运动过程中的海水浮力和拖曳力.计算表明该扩展多面体单元可描述海冰在海流拖曳下的运动过程以及圆桩结构的动冰力特性.在此基础上进一步分析了冰速和冰块尺寸对圆桩冰力的影响,并确定了冰力在圆桩上的分布规律. 最后,讨论了目前扩展多面体单元在计算冰载荷方面的局限性和改进方法.  相似文献   
5.
ABSTRACT

In this paper, a stabilized space-time finite element method for solving linear parabolic evolution problems is analyzed. The proposed method is developed on a base of a space-time variational setting, that helps on the simultaneous and unified discretization in space and in time by finite element techniques. Stabilization terms are constructed by means of classical bubble spaces. Stability of the discrete problem with respect to an associated mesh dependent norm is proved, and a priori discretization error estimates are presented. Numerical examples confirm the theoretical estimates.  相似文献   
6.
Predicting the onset of non-spherical oscillations of bubbles in soft matter is a fundamental cavitation problem with implications to sonoprocessing, polymeric materials synthesis, and biomedical ultrasound applications. The shape stability of a bubble in a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic medium with nonlinear elasticity, the simplest constitutive model for soft solids, is analytically investigated and compared to experiments. Using perturbation methods, we develop a model reducing the equations of motion to two sets of evolution equations: a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation for the mean (volume-equivalent) bubble radius and an equation for the non-spherical mode amplitudes. Parametric instability is predicted by examining the natural frequency and the Mathieu equation for the non-spherical modes, which are obtained from our model. Our theoretical results show good agreement with published experiments of the shape oscillations of a bubble in a gelatin gel. We further examine the impact of viscoelasticity on the time evolution of non-spherical mode amplitudes. In particular, we find that viscosity increases the damping rate, thus suppressing the shape instability, while shear modulus increases the natural frequency, which changes the unstable mode. We also explain the contributions of rotational and irrotational fields to the viscoelastic stresses in the surroundings and at the bubble surface, as these contributions affect the damping rate and the unstable mode. Our analysis on the role of viscoelasticity is potentially useful to measure viscoelastic properties of soft materials by experimentally observing the shape oscillations of a bubble.  相似文献   
7.
使用导模法(EFG)生长了多片a面蓝宝石晶体。显微拉曼光谱结合电感耦合等离子体发射光谱(ICP-AES)测试得出晶体的气泡中可能存在含S化合物。晶体表面明显的生长条纹主要与温度、生长速度的波动以及模具的加工精度有关。化学腐蚀分析表明晶体位错密度在4.2×104 cm-2,未存在小角度晶界缺陷,双晶摇摆曲线半峰宽(FWHM)为70.63″。由于采用石墨保温材料,晶体中存在F心与F+色心。晶体在400~3 000 nm波段透过率高于80%,空气中退火后可减弱色心吸收。本文研究结果可为蓝宝石晶体缺陷形成理论研究提供参考,也可为导模法蓝宝石工业生产技术改进提供借鉴。  相似文献   
8.
An on-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandemmass spectrometry method for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water samples was developed. The optimal analytical conditions were obtained through the optimization of the extraction efficiency of online solid phase extraction column, sample loading rate and loading volume, and the concentration of ammonium acetate in mobile phase. Under the optimal condition, the analytical method displayed good linearity (r2 > 0.99) for 12 PFASs (C5-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and C6/C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids) over a concentration range of 0.5-100 ng/L. The limits of quantitation for samples were between 0.025 ng/L and 0.5 ng/L and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of five consecutive analyses were less than 10% for 1 ng/L standard solution. Satisfactory results were obtained using this analytical method for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in Antarctic ice core samples. The recoveries of all perfluoroalkyl substances were in a range of 73%-117% when the sampleswere spiked with standards at the concentrations of 2.5 ng/L and 25 ng/L.  相似文献   
9.
Ice has a variety of scientifically interesting features, some of which have not been reasonably interpreted despite substantial efforts by researchers. Most chemical studies of ice have focused on the elucidation of its physicochemical nature and its roles in the natural environment. Ice often contains impurities, such as salts, and in such cases, a liquid phase coexists with solid ice over a wide temperature range. This impure ice also acts as a cryoreactor, governing the circulation of chemical species of environmental importance. Reactions and phenomena occurring in this liquid phase show features different from those seen in normal bulk aqueous solutions. In the present account, we discuss the chemical characteristics of the liquid phase that develops in a frozen aqueous phase and show how novel analytical systems can be designed based on he features of the liquid phase which are predictable in some cases but unpredictable in others.  相似文献   
10.
The generation of free radicals is a key process in the formation and the collapse of the bubbles in water, however, the direct and dynamic observation of the radicals in this process at single bubbles has never been achieved. Here, the hydroxyl (OH.) and oxygen (O2.−) radicals at single oxygen bubbles are continuously traced using chemiluminescence (CL), in which these radicals at the bubble react with the surrounding luminol in the solution emitting the light. Varied increase trends of luminescence are observed in the generation of a bubble, floating, short parking at the water/air interface and the final explosion, revealing the complexity in the distribution of radicals at the bubble unprecedentedly. Despite more radicals are observed at the bubble generated at a deep position under the water for the stabilization, almost the same amount of radicals are included in the bubbles that is independent on the water pressure during the production of the bubble. This rich information collected from the dynamic study of bubbles illustrates the complicated generation and distribution process of radicals at the bubbles, and will facilitate the understanding of the function about the bubbles.  相似文献   
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