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1.
Diffusion processes can be followed directly by recording one-dimensional images of a selected slice at variable intervals after selective inversion of the magnetization. The resulting diffusion coefficients of H2O and DMSO are consistent with earlier studies at different temperatures, obtained by monitoring the attenuation of NMR signals as a function of the gradient amplitude in gradient echo sequences.  相似文献   
2.
In this study, manganese tellurite (MnTeO3) nanoparticles are developed as theranostic agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided photothermal therapy of tumor. MnTeO3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a simple one-step method. The as-synthesized MnTeO3 nanoparticles with uniform size show good biocompatibility. In particular, MnTeO3 nanoparticles exhibit a high photothermal conversion efficiency (η = 26.3%), which is higher than that of gold nanorods. Moreover, MnTeO3 nanoparticles also have high MRI performance. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1) value of MnTeO3 nanoparticles is determined to be 8.08 ± 0.2 mm −1 s−1, which is higher than that of clinically approved T1-contrast agents Gd-DTPA (4.49 ± 0.1 mm −1 s−1). The subsequent MnTeO3 nanoparticles-mediated photothermal therapy displays a highly efficient ablation of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo with negligible toxicity. It is demonstrated that MnTeO3 nanoparticles can serve as promising theranostic agents with great potentials for MRI-guided photothermal therapy.  相似文献   
3.
本研究探讨3.0T磁共振成像(MRI)结合X线钼靶诊断乳腺恶性肿瘤的价值。采用回顾性研究方法,选取乳腺肿块患者110例162个病灶,给予3.0T MRI及X线钼靶检查。经病理确诊为恶性病变101个;恶性病灶形态不规则、边缘毛刺、时间-信号强度曲线(TIC)类型Ⅲ型和早期增强率≥60%比例明显高于良性病灶(P<0.05),而分叶状比例和表观扩散系数(ADC)值明显低于良性病变(P<0.05);恶性病变X线钼靶表现:形态不规则、钙化、结构不对称和大导管征比例明显高于良性病变(P<0.05);MRI联合X线钼靶诊断乳腺恶性病变的灵敏性、准确性和阴性预测值明显高于MRI诊断(P<0.05)。3.0T MRI检查结合X线钼靶诊断乳腺恶性肿瘤有较好的价值。  相似文献   
4.
NIFTy , “Numerical Information Field Theory,” is a software framework designed to ease the development and implementation of field inference algorithms. Field equations are formulated independently of the underlying spatial geometry allowing the user to focus on the algorithmic design. Under the hood, NIFTy ensures that the discretization of the implemented equations is consistent. This enables the user to prototype an algorithm rapidly in 1D and then apply it to high‐dimensional real‐world problems. This paper introduces NIFTy  3, a major upgrade to the original NIFTy  framework. NIFTy  3 allows the user to run inference algorithms on massively parallel high performance computing clusters without changing the implementation of the field equations. It supports n‐dimensional Cartesian spaces, spherical spaces, power spaces, and product spaces as well as transforms to their harmonic counterparts. Furthermore, NIFTy  3 is able to handle non‐scalar fields, such as vector or tensor fields. The functionality and performance of the software package is demonstrated with example code, which implements a mock inference inspired by a real‐world algorithm from the realm of information field theory. NIFTy  3 is open‐source software available under the GNU General Public License v3 (GPL‐3) at https://gitlab.mpcdf.mpg.de/ift/NIFTy/tree/NIFTy_3 .  相似文献   
5.
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is an emerging noninvasive and precise localized therapeutic modality; however, it is deeply limited by its poor tumor accumulation, inadequate photothermal conversion efficiency, and the thermoresistance of cancer cells. Aimed at these shortcomings, tumor‐targeting nanoparticles (iRGD‐W18O49‐17AAG) comprising carboxyl‐group‐functionalized W18O49 nanoparticles, integrin‐targeting peptide iRGD, and HSP90‐inhibitor 17AAG are developed. The W18O49 nanoparticles act as excellent PTT carriers and computed tomography (CT) imaging contrast agents. The ring type polypeptide iRGD promotes the accumulation of nanoparticles in the tumour and further penetration into cancer cells. The introduction of 17AAG can inhibit the heat‐shock response and overcome the thermoresistance, thus increasing the curative effect of PTT and reducing the chance of tumor recurrence. The W18O49 nanoparticles can also be used to monitor and guide the phototherapeutic through CT and near‐infrared fluorescence imaging after modification with Cy5.5. In addition, superior biosafety is also indicated in both preliminary in vitro and in vivo assessments. The potential of iRGD‐W18O49‐17AAG in tumor targeting, dual modality imaging‐guided and remarkable enhanced PTT of gastric cancer with ignorable side effect both in vitro and in vivo, which may be further applied in clinic, is highlighted.  相似文献   
6.
可见/近红外光谱图像在作物病害检测中的应用   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
农作物病害严重影响了我国正常的农业生产,现代农业迫切需要快速、准确、高效的作物病害诊断方法。首先简单介绍了常用病害检测技术,如:聚合酶链式反应技术、人工感官判定技术、统计学方法等,这些方法或是比较费时、或是只能用于产生明显病斑后的病害诊断,而光谱技术在植物病害的快速检测方面有一定的潜力,目前已有大量的研究成果。主要围绕可见/近红外光谱图像在病害检测的应用展开分析和讨论,讨论了该技术所涉及的仪器,并从细胞、植物组织、冠层及更大尺度层面分析了该技术在病害检测中的现况。目前大部分与植物病害有关的可见/近红外光谱研究都以植物叶片为对象,而在更小尺度(细胞至显微尺度)和更大尺度(冠层至航空/航天遥感方面)上的研究较少,特别是单细胞级别的病害研究,只在动物细胞领域展开,而且以荧光、拉曼、红外光谱为主。可见/近红外在以植物叶片为主要研究对象的器官尺度上有大量的成功应用,目前的研究已涉及了大部分的常见作物及其主要病害,包括真菌性、细菌性等各种病原引起的病害的检测。植物叶片尺度的研究主要从以下三个方面展开:(1)基于计算机图像处理和模式识别的病害信息自动快速判断;(2)基于化学计量学方法的高光谱或高光谱图像病害程度模型;(3)建立与作物病害有关的叶片某些理化参数的光谱模型,从而量化病害的程度。在植物叶片这一尺度相关研究的主要问题是:研究过于碎片化,往往只研究了某一种或少数几种病害,所建的模型只能用于特定实验条件,无法直接自动判断任意田间样本的染病种类与程度。在近地冠层尺度,植株的三维形态对光谱模型有较大的干扰,有文献表明以植株近地冠层2D图像作为病害检测数据,偏差较大,所建模型不稳定,基于卫星影像的病害模型较少。还讨论了常用光谱及光谱图像建模与分类方法。目前可见/近红外光谱在农作物病害方面有一定的应用潜力,但存在研究内容的不平衡、研究系统性不够、各学科合作研究不够深入等几大问题。最后提出可见/近红外光谱在病害检测领域中应更注重多学科的深入合作,并急需相关的仪器设备、方法模型方面的突破。  相似文献   
7.
Biomaterial scaffolds are the cornerstone to supporting 3D tissue growth. Optimized scaffold design is critical to successful regeneration, and this optimization requires accurate knowledge of the scaffold's interaction with living tissue in the dynamic in vivo milieu. Unfortunately, non‐invasive methods that can probe scaffolds in the intact living subject are largely underexplored, with imaging‐based assessment relying on either imaging cells seeded on the scaffold or imaging scaffolds that have been chemically altered. In this work, the authors develop a broadly applicable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to image scaffolds directly. A positive‐contrast “bright” manganese porphyrin (MnP) agent for labeling scaffolds is used to achieve high sensitivity and specificity, and polydopamine, a biologically derived universal adhesive, is employed for adhering the MnP. The technique was optimized in vitro on a prototypic collagen gel, and in vivo assessment was performed in rats. The results demonstrate superior in vivo scaffold visualization and the potential for quantitative tracking of degradation over time. Designed with ease of synthesis in mind and general applicability for the continuing expansion of available biomaterials, the proposed method will allow tissue engineers to assess and fine‐tune the in vivo behavior of their scaffolds for optimal regeneration.  相似文献   
8.
Epicocconone 1 is a natural chromophore isolated from the fungus Epicoccum nigrum that has shown applications in proteomics and fluorescent microscopy thanks to its unique pro-fluorescence properties. The modification of the skeleton of the natural product by replacing the triene side chain by a fluorenyl scaffold can noticeably increase the fluorophore's absorption coefficient. The synthesis of the analogues of the natural product has been made possible by the use of a palladium-catalyzed carbonylation reaction, allowing the construction of the β-keto-dioxinone key intermediate. Two-photon absorption cross-section measurements of the fluorenyl epicocconone analogues show a structure dependency with values ranging from 60 to 280 GM and live cell imaging show intense staining of intracellular vesicle-like structures around the nucleus.  相似文献   
9.
高光谱成像的土壤剖面水分含量反演及制图   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
传统土壤水分的获取方法仅可获得离散的土壤水分点位数据,难以获得剖面上精细且连续的水分含量分布图。研究了野外条件下利用近红外高光谱(882~1 709 nm)成像反演剖面土壤水分含量(SMC),并实现精细制图的可行性。研究剖面位于江苏省东台市,我们利用近红外高光谱成像仪对剖面进行了5天原位连续观测,共采集了280个土样用于烘干法测定SMC。原始高光谱图像经数字量化值(DN)校正、黑白校正、拼接、几何校正、剪切和掩膜等一系列预处理后,提取各采样点的平均光谱反射率。提取光谱(Raw)经吸光度[LOG10(1/R)],Savitzky-Golay平滑(SG)、一阶微分(FD)、二阶微分(SD)、多元散射校正(MSC)和标准正态变量(SNV)转换后,采用偏最小二乘回归(PLSR)和最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM)方法建立SMC预测模型,并对比分析不同光谱预处理方法与建模方法组合条件下SMC的预测精度。结果表明,光谱反射率随SMC增加逐渐降低,不同光谱预处理方法的预测精度有所差异,除MSC方法外,同一光谱预处理方法的LS-SVM模型预测精度均高于PLSR模型,并且基于LOG10(1/R)光谱的LS-SVM模型对SMC预测精度最高,其建模集的决定系数(R2c)和均方根误差(RMSEc)分别为0.96和0.65%,预测集的决定系数(R2p)、均方根误差(RMSEp)和相对分析误差(RPDp)分别为0.88,1.05%和2.88。利用最优模型进行剖面SMC的高空间分辨率精细制图,通过比较SMC反演图中提取的预测值与实测值关系发现预测精度较高(R2: 0.85~0.95, RMSE: 0.94%~1.02%),且两者在剖面中的变化趋势基本一致,说明SMC反演图不仅能很好地反映出土壤水分在整个剖面中毫米级的含量分布信息,也可反映出同一位置处不同天数间的含量差异。因此,利用近红外高光谱成像结合优化的预测模型,能够实现土壤剖面SMC的定量预测及精细制图,有助于快速、有效监测田间剖面土壤水分状况。  相似文献   
10.
原发性开角型青光眼是常见的致盲性眼部疾病。眼压升高是原发性开角型青光眼发生和发展最主要的危险因素,是由小梁网途径的房水外流排出系统发生病变、房水流出阻力增加所致。研究表明,房水中存在的转化生长因子-β能够使小梁细胞纤维化,诱导小梁细胞过度增殖,从而阻碍房水外流,导致原发性开角型青光眼的发生。原发性开角型青光眼发病隐蔽,病程进展缓慢,早期没有任何症状,往往到晚期视力视野有显著损害时,才会被发现,因此原发性开角型青光眼的早期诊断尤为重要。同步辐射红外显微成像结合高亮度、高分辨率的同步辐射源,同时配备傅里叶变换红外光谱仪与红外显微镜,可以实现细胞的检测。这对从分子层面获取细胞的变化信息,深入理解疾病的发病机制以及疾病的早期诊断具有非常重要的意义。虽然有很多红外光谱在生物医学领域的研究报道,但是应用红外光谱显微成像技术研究细胞等生物医学体系仍然是亟待发展的领域,并且目前未找到关于红外光谱用于小梁网细胞的检测报道。在体外用转化生长因子-β对老鼠小梁网细胞进行诱导,使其转化为肌成纤维细胞,模拟小梁细胞纤维化过程。对小梁网细胞以及经转化生长因子-β诱导形成的肌成纤维细胞进行同步辐射红外显微成像及光谱分析,并进一步探讨同步辐射用于早期诊断原发性开角型青光眼的可行性。研究表明肌成纤维细胞内的弹性蛋白明显高于小梁网细胞,而弹性蛋白中95%为非极性氨基酸,即氨基酸的侧链基团R基只有C和H两种元素。对比两种细胞的红外谱图,发现在2 934,2 900和2 845 cm-1,肌成纤维细胞的 CH3,CH2和CH的伸缩振动明显强于小梁网细胞,推测可能是由于转化生长因子-β诱导后细胞内弹性蛋白增加所致。在细胞层面检测了小梁网细胞的过度增殖,为将来可以直接获取细胞的红外光谱从而检测小梁网细胞的增殖程度,进而检测原发性开角型青光眼等疾病奠定了基础。得出同步辐射红外谱学与显微成像有望成为检测原发性开角型青光眼新手段的结论,也为将来便携式红外显微光谱仪临床实时检测青光眼等疾病提供了依据。  相似文献   
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