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1.
Favipiravir is a potential antiviral medication that has been recently licensed for Covid-19 treatment. In this work, a gadolinium-based magnetic ionic liquid was prepared and used as an extractant in dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) of favipiravir in human plasma. The high enriching ability of DLLME allowed the determination of favipiravir in real samples using HPLC/UV with sufficient sensitivity. The effects of several variables on extraction efficiency were investigated, including type of extractant, amount of extractant, type of disperser and disperser volume. The maximum enrichment was attained using 50 mg of the Gd-magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) and 150 μl of tetrahydrofuran. The Gd-based MIL could form a supramolecular assembly in the presence of tetrahydrofuran, which enhanced the extraction efficiency of favipiravir. The developed method was validated according to US Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The coefficient of determination was 0.9999, for a linear concentration range of 25 to 1.0 × 105 ng/ml. The percentage recovery (accuracy) varied from 99.83 to 104.2%, with RSD values (precision) ranging from 4.07 to 11.84%. The total extraction time was about 12 min and the HPLC analysis time was 5 min. The method was simple, selective and sensitive for the determination of favipiravir in real human plasma.  相似文献   
2.
Amlexanox, an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agent, has been widely used clinically for the treatment of canker sores, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. Recently, amlexanox has received considerable attention in curing nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases and hepatitis virus infection. Herein, we first established a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrum (LC–MS/MS) method for the determination of amlexanox in rat plasma. Propranolol was used as the internal standard (IS). Using a simple protein precipitation method, the amlexanox and IS were separated with Capcell Pak C18 column (2.0 × 50 mm, 5 μm) and eluted with water and acetonitrile each containing 0.1% formic acid using gradient elution condition at a flow rate of 0.4 mL·min−1. Amlexanox and IS were detected by a triple quadrupole mass in multiple reactive monitoring (MRM) under the transitions of m/z 299.2 → 281.2 and m/z 259.9 → 116.1 with positive electrospray ionization, respectively. The calibration curves of amlexanox were established with the range of 50 to 2000 ng·mL−1 (r2 > 0.99). The validation method consisted of selectivity, accuracy, precision, carryover effect, matrix effect, recovery, dilution effect, and stability. The fully validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of amlexanox in Wistar rats.  相似文献   
3.
In the pursuit to enlarge the library of polyimide materials for energy applications, new polyimide/MWCNTs composite films have been developed by MWCNTs-assisted polycondensation reaction of a hydroxyl and triphenylmethane-containing diamine with benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride targeting to highlight their electrical storage capability as flexible electrodes in micro-supercapacitors (mSCs). The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, UV–vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies were used to demonstrate the evolution of interfacial interactions between MWCNTs and the precursors (diamine monomer and intermediate polyamidic acid) and polyimide matrix that proved to be the origin of MWCNTs homogeneous dispersion. Thus, composite films incorporating 1, 3, 5, and 10 w.t.% MWCNTs were obtained and thoroughly investigated with regard to their morphology, mechanical behavior, thermal stability, and electrical conductivity. The electrochemical performance of these composites was first analyzed in a classical three-electrode cell by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge in both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. By far, the best electrical storage capacity was obtained with the composite polyimide film containing 10% MWCNTs that was further used as both active material and current collector in a flexible symmetric mSC realized by a straightforward and low-cost procedure. In the attempt to better exploit the advantages of this composite film, it was layered with a graphite-containing paint and tested as an electrode in a flexible mSC, which provided satisfactory results. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the electrical charge storage capability of a polyimide/MWCNTs free-standing film as a flexible electrode in mSCs, which do not require time- and resource-consuming processing steps.  相似文献   
4.
《Mendeleev Communications》2022,32(4):534-536
Correlation times and diffusion coefficients of water molecules were measured for the first time by 1H spin relaxation and pulsed field gradient NMR in Li+, Na+ and Cs+ ionic forms of Nafion 117 membrane. Hydration numbers of Li+, Na+ and Cs+ cations were calculated. It was shown that at high humidity macroscopic transfer is controlled by the local translational motion of water molecules.  相似文献   
5.
Nitrene transfer reactions have emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile ways to insert an amine function to various kinds of hydrocarbon substrates. However, the mechanisms of nitrene generation have not been studied in depth albeit their formation is taken for granted in most cases without definitive evidence of their occurrence. In the present work, we compare the generation of tosylimido iron species and NTs transfer from FeII and FeIII precursors where the metal is embedded in a tetracarbene macrocycle. Catalytic nitrene transfer to reference substrates (thioanisole, styrene, ethylbenzene and cyclohexane) revealed that the same active species was at play, irrespective of the ferrous versus ferric nature of the precursor. Through combination of spectroscopic (UV-visible, Mössbauer), ESI-MS and DFT studies, an FeIV tosylimido species was identified as the catalytically active species and was characterized spectroscopically and computationally. Whereas its formation from the FeII precursor was expected by a two-electron oxidative addition, its formation from an FeIII precursor was unprecedented. Thanks to a combination of spectroscopic (UV-visible, EPR, Hyscore and Mössbauer), ESI-MS and DFT studies, we found that, when starting from the FeIII precursor, an FeIII tosyliodinane adduct was formed and decomposed into an FeV tosylimido species which generated the catalytically active FeIV tosylimide through a comproportionation process with the FeIII precursor.  相似文献   
6.
An efficient edge based data structure has been developed in order to implement an unstructured vertex based finite volume algorithm for the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations on hybrid meshes. In the present approach, the data structure is tailored to meet the requirements of the vertex based algorithm by considering data access patterns and cache efficiency. The required data are packed and allocated in a way that they are close to each other in the physical memory. Therefore, the proposed data structure increases cache performance and improves computation time. As a result, the explicit flow solver indicates a significant speed up compared to other open-source solvers in terms of CPU time. A fully implicit version has also been implemented based on the PETSc library in order to improve the robustness of the algorithm. The resulting algebraic equations due to the compressible Navier–Stokes and the one equation Spalart–Allmaras turbulence equations are solved in a monolithic manner using the restricted additive Schwarz preconditioner combined with the FGMRES Krylov subspace algorithm. In order to further improve the computational accuracy, the multiscale metric based anisotropic mesh refinement library PyAMG is used for mesh adaptation. The numerical algorithm is validated for the classical benchmark problems such as the transonic turbulent flow around a supercritical RAE2822 airfoil and DLR-F6 wing-body-nacelle-pylon configuration. The efficiency of the data structure is demonstrated by achieving up to an order of magnitude speed up in CPU times.  相似文献   
7.
3,4-Difluorobenzyl(1-ethyl-5-(4-((4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-methyl)thiazol-2-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl)carbamate (NAI59), a small molecule with outstanding therapeutic effectiveness to anti-pulmonary fibrosis, was developed as an autotaxin inhibitor candidate compound. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and plasma protein binding of NAI59, a UPLC–MS/MS method was developed to quantify NAI59 in plasma and phosphate-buffered saline. The calibration curve linearity ranged from 9.95 to 1990.00 ng/mL in plasma. The accuracy was −6.8 to 5.9%, and the intra- and inter-day precision was within 15%. The matrix effect and recovery, as well as dilution integrity, were within the criteria. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions were also feasible to determine phosphate-buffered saline samples, and it has been proved that this method exhibits good precision and accuracy in the range of 9.95–497.50 ng/mL in phosphate-buffered saline. This study is the first to determine the pharmacokinetics, absolute bioavailability, and plasma protein binding of NAI59 in rats using this established method. Therefore, the pharmacokinetic profiles of NAI59 showed a dose-dependent relationship after oral administration, and the absolute bioavailability in rats was 6.3%. In addition, the results of protein binding showed that the combining capacity of NAI59 with plasma protein attained 90% and increased with the increase in drug concentration.  相似文献   
8.
Prediction of drag reduction effect caused by pulsating pipe flows is examined using machine learning. First, a large set of flow field data is obtained experimentally by measuring turbulent pipe flows with various pulsation patterns. Consequently, more than 7000 waveforms are applied, obtaining a maximum drag reduction rate and maximum energy saving rate of 38.6% and 31.4%, respectively. The results indicate that the pulsating flow effect can be characterized by the pulsation period and pressure gradient during acceleration and deceleration. Subsequently, two machine learning models are tested to predict the drag reduction rate. The results confirm that the machine learning model developed for predicting the time variation of the flow velocity and differential pressure with respect to the pump voltage can accurately predict the nonlinearity of pressure gradients. Therefore, using this model, the drag reduction effect can be estimated with high accuracy.  相似文献   
9.
10.
Acridone as a new kind of visible light photocatalyst has been developed to catalyze metal free atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The photocatalyst possess low excited state potential as can undergo an oxidative quenching pathway to initiate ATRP of vinyl monomers. Kinetic study and light on/off reaction demonstrate the “living”/controlled nature of the polymerization by light. Block copolymers can be achieved by using PMMA as macroinitiator to reinitiate polymerization of other vinyl monomers, which shows highly preserved Br chain-end functionality in the synthesized polymers. Moreover, the polymerization can be conducted under air atmosphere as most photocatalysts need anaerobic condition, which may give inspiration of further application of this kind of photocatalyst.  相似文献   
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