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1.
An efficient edge based data structure has been developed in order to implement an unstructured vertex based finite volume algorithm for the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations on hybrid meshes. In the present approach, the data structure is tailored to meet the requirements of the vertex based algorithm by considering data access patterns and cache efficiency. The required data are packed and allocated in a way that they are close to each other in the physical memory. Therefore, the proposed data structure increases cache performance and improves computation time. As a result, the explicit flow solver indicates a significant speed up compared to other open-source solvers in terms of CPU time. A fully implicit version has also been implemented based on the PETSc library in order to improve the robustness of the algorithm. The resulting algebraic equations due to the compressible Navier–Stokes and the one equation Spalart–Allmaras turbulence equations are solved in a monolithic manner using the restricted additive Schwarz preconditioner combined with the FGMRES Krylov subspace algorithm. In order to further improve the computational accuracy, the multiscale metric based anisotropic mesh refinement library PyAMG is used for mesh adaptation. The numerical algorithm is validated for the classical benchmark problems such as the transonic turbulent flow around a supercritical RAE2822 airfoil and DLR-F6 wing-body-nacelle-pylon configuration. The efficiency of the data structure is demonstrated by achieving up to an order of magnitude speed up in CPU times.  相似文献   
2.
In this article, we construct and analyze a residual-based a posteriori error estimator for a quadratic finite volume method (FVM) for solving nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. We shall prove that the a posteriori error estimator yields the global upper and local lower bounds for the norm error of the FVM. So that the a posteriori error estimator is equivalent to the true error in a certain sense. Numerical experiments are performed to illustrate the theoretical results.  相似文献   
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In this work, a vanillin complex is immobilized onto MCM-41 and characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and BET techniques. This supported Schiff base complex was found to be an efficient and recoverable catalyst for the chemoselective oxidation of sulfides into sulfoxides and thiols into their corresponding disulfides (using hydrogen peroxide as a green oxidant) and also a suitable catalyst for the preparation of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives in water at 90°C. Using this protocol, we show that a variety of disulfides, sulfoxides, and 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives can be synthesized in green conditions. The catalyst can be recovered and recycled for further reactions without appreciable loss of catalytic performance.  相似文献   
6.
Luca Cimbaro 《哲学杂志》2019,99(12):1499-1514
A unified theory captures both brittle and ductile fracture. The fracture toughness is proportional to the applied stress squared and the length of the crack. For purely brittle solids, this criterion is equivalent to Griffith's theory. In other cases, it provides a theoretical basis for the Irwin-Orowan formula. For purely ductile solids, the theory makes direct contact with the Bilby-Cottrell-Swinden model. The toughness is highest in ductile materials because the shielding dislocations in the plastic zone provide additional resistance to crack growth. This resistance is the force opposing dislocation motion, and the Peach-Koehler force overcomes it. A dislocation-free zone separates the plastic zone from and the tip of the crack. The dislocation-free zone is finite because molecular forces responsible for the cohesion of the surfaces near the crack tip are not negligible. At the point of crack growth, the length of the dislocation-free zone is constant and the shielding dislocations advance in concert. As in Griffith's theory, the crack is in unstable equilibrium. The theory shows that a dimensionless variable controls the elastoplastic behaviour. A relationship for the size of the dislocation-free zone is derived in terms of the macroscopic and microscopic parameters that govern the fracture.  相似文献   
7.
G. Peruginelli 《代数通讯》2018,46(11):4724-4738
We classify the maximal subrings of the ring of n×n matrices over a finite field, and show that these subrings may be divided into three types. We also describe all of the maximal subrings of a finite semisimple ring, and categorize them into two classes. As an application of these results, we calculate the covering number of a finite semisimple ring.  相似文献   
8.
Molecular structure and vibrational spectroscopic studies of higher homologous series nematogenic p-n-alkylbenzoic acids (nBAC) that have 6 (6BAC) and 7 (7BAC) carbon atoms in the alkyl chain have been investigated using the Density Functional Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) level with the basis set 6-31++G (d.p) and Hartree Fock (HF) with the same basis set. The observed vibrational spectra has been resolved and assigned in detail for comparision with both the molecules. These results indicate that DFT and HF values are slightly different at both the levels. A comparision of chemical reactivity such as HOMO (EH), LUMO (EL) energies, energy gap (Eg), ionization energy (I), electron affinity (A), electro negativity (χ), chemical hardness (η), electronic chemical potential (μ), electrophilicity index (ω), and softness (S) has been made. It has been observed that the decrement has occurred in the energy band gap value of isolated molecule with increment in alkyl chain length. This provides valuable information regarding enhancing the stability of liquid crystal materials by maintaining the conductivity.  相似文献   
9.
Erosion and sediments transport processes have a great impact on industrial structures and on water quality. Despite its limitations, the Saint‐Venant‐Exner system is still (and for sure for some years) widely used in industrial codes to model the bedload sediment transport. In practice, its numerical resolution is mostly handled by a splitting technique that allows a weak coupling between hydraulic and morphodynamic distinct softwares but may suffer from important stability issues. In recent works, many authors proposed alternative methods based on a strong coupling that cure this problem but are not so trivial to implement in an industrial context. In this work, we then pursue 2 objectives. First, we propose a very simple scheme based on an approximate Riemann solver, respecting the strong coupling framework, and we demonstrate its stability and accuracy through a number of numerical test cases. However, second, we reinterpret our scheme as a splitting technique and we extend the purpose to propose what should be the minimal coupling that ensures the stability of the global numerical process in industrial codes, at least, when dealing with collocated finite volume method. The resulting splitting method is, up to our knowledge, the only one for which stability properties are fully demonstrated.  相似文献   
10.
As a new type of quantum dots (QDs), hexagonal boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs) exhibit promising potential in the applications of disease diagnosis, fluorescence imaging, biosensing, metal ion detection, and so on, because of their remarkable chemical stability, excellent biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, and outstanding photoluminescence properties. However, the large-scale fabrication of homogeneous BNQDs still remains challenging. In this article, the properties and common fabrication methods of BNQDs are summarized based on the recent research progress. Then, the corresponding yields, morphologies, and fabrication mechanisms of these as-obtained BNQDs are discussed in detail. Moreover, the applications of these as-obtained BNQDs in different fields are also discussed. This article is expected to inspire new methods and improvements to achieve large-scale fabrication of homogeneous BNQDs, which will enable their practical applications in future.  相似文献   
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