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1.
非对称声分束超表面是由人工微单元结构按照特定序列构建的二维平面结构,可将垂直入射的声波分成两束传播方向和分束比自由调控的透射波,在声功能器件设计及声通信领域具有广泛的应用前景。本文系统研究了一种实现非对称声分束的设计理论和实现方法,基于局域声功率守恒条件研究了声分束器的设计理论、阻抗矩阵分布、法向声强分布、声压场分布等。利用遗传算法对四串联共振腔结构进行参数优化实现了声分束器所需的阻抗矩阵分布,声压场分布表明声波入射到声分束器后在入射侧激发出两列传播方向相反且幅值和衰减系数均相同的表面波,实现了入射侧与透射侧的局域声功率相互匹配。声波经过声分束器后被分为两束透射波,两束透射波的折射角和透射系数与理论值十分吻合,证明了设计理论及实现方法的正确性和可行性。本文的研究工作可以为新型非对称声分束结构设计提供理论参考、设计方法和技术支持,并促进其在工程领域的实际应用。  相似文献   
2.
In this study, we have provided a facile solution to synthesize well-aligned titanium dioxide nanorods by using hydrothermal reaction. By calcining the materials under different atmospheres and temperatures, a batch of titanium dioxides with excellent oxygen evolution reaction(OER) catalytic efficiency were obtained. This new structured TiO2 photoanode material yields a high photocurrent density of 5.69 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode(RHE) under simulated solar light(100 mW/cm2). Surface photovoltage techniques and other measurements were carried out to confirm that the enhanced photoelectrochemical performances were attributed to the synergistic effect of the phase junction and a certain content of surface states, which accelerate the separation and transmission of the photogenerated charges. This material with phase junction and surface states promises a potential application in the field of photoelectric catalysis under solar light.  相似文献   
3.
Proton exchange membrane water electrolysers are very promising renewable energy conversion devices that produce hydrogen from sustainable feedstocks. These devices are mainly limited by the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Ir-based nanoparticles are both reasonably active and stable for the OER in acidic media. The electrolyte composition and the pH may play a crucial role in electrocatalysis, yet they have been widely overlooked for the OER. Herein, we present a study on the effects of the composition and concentration of the electrolyte on commercial Ir black nanoparticles using concentrations of 0.05 M, 0.1 M and 0.5 M of both sulphuric and perchloric acid. The results show an important effect of the electrolyte composition on the catalytic performance of the Ir nanoparticles. The concentration of H2SO4 interferes on the oxidation of Ir and decreases the catalytic performance of the catalyst. HClO4 does not show strong interferences in the electrochemistry of Ir. Higher catalytic performances are observed in HClO4 electrolytes in comparison to H2SO4 with little effect of the concentration of HClO4.  相似文献   
4.
Both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are crucial to water splitting, but require alternative active sites. Now, a general π‐electron‐assisted strategy to anchor single‐atom sites (M=Ir, Pt, Ru, Pd, Fe, Ni) on a heterogeneous support is reported. The M atoms can simultaneously anchor on two distinct domains of the hybrid support, four‐fold N/C atoms (M@NC), and centers of Co octahedra (M@Co), which are expected to serve as bifunctional electrocatalysts towards the HER and the OER. The Ir catalyst exhibits the best water‐splitting performance, showing a low applied potential of 1.603 V to achieve 10 mA cm?2 in 1.0 m KOH solution with cycling over 5 h. DFT calculations indicate that the Ir@Co (Ir) sites can accelerate the OER, while the Ir@NC3 sites are responsible for the enhanced HER, clarifying the unprecedented performance of this bifunctional catalyst towards full water splitting.  相似文献   
5.
The ground and excited states of a donor impurity at the center of a spherical quantum dot subject to a magnetic field are calculated within the effective-mass approximation. The barriers are infinitely high and the differential equation is solved by combining the finite-difference method with the Richardson extrapolation. The binding and transition energies are more accurate than the available variational values, and excellent agreement is found with the hydrogen atom. The transition energies for a medium-size quantum dot are given.  相似文献   
6.
采用一锅蒸发诱导自组装法(EISA)制备了一系列不同铈锆物质的量比的铈锆固溶体催化剂,用TGA研究了其热化学循环分解CO_2制CO的催化性能,并采用XRD、Raman光谱、H2-TPR、XPS、SEM和N_2吸附-脱附等手段对催化剂的物相结构、还原性能和表面化学性质进行了表征分析,用热重分析(TGA)研究了铈锆固溶体对热化学循环分解CO_2制CO的催化性能。结果表明,随着Ce/Zr物质的量比增加,铈锆固溶体催化剂的CO_2高温分解活性先增大后减小。Ce/Zr物质的量比为1的Ce_(0.5)Zr_(0.5)O_2催化剂由于具有较多的晶格缺陷和氧空穴,氧迁移能力强,催化活性高,而Ce/Zr物质的量比为3的Ce_(0.75)Zr_(0.25)O_2催化剂具有相对稳定的氧空穴数,循环稳定性好。循环反应后,所有的催化剂均出现了一定程度的烧结,且富锆固溶体发生了相分离,这可能会影响催化剂的性能。  相似文献   
7.
刘兵  宫辉力  刘锐  胡长文 《应用化学》2019,36(8):939-948
利用溶胶凝胶法制备了金纳米棒(GNR)与TiO2的核壳结构复合材料--GNR@TiO2,粒径为200 nm左右。 经水热晶化后的材料粒径为300 nm左右,GNR形貌和局域表面等离子共振(LSPR)峰保持稳定,其外边包裹着树枝状的锐钛矿相TiO2壳层。 采用X射线衍射(XRD)、高分辨透射电子显微镜(HRTEM)、X射线光电子能谱分析(XPS)、紫外可见吸收光谱、光催化制氢性能等技术手段测试表征了样品的结构及性能。 结果表明,晶化后的GNR@TiO2在可见光范围内制氢速率为31.0 μmol/(g·h),相较与晶化前7.3 μmol/(g·h)得到了明显提升。 最后结合实验结果和时域有限差分(FDTD)分析了催化产氢机理:LSPR促进了可见光吸收,锐钛矿TiO2对电场的增强促进了光生电子-空穴分离,同时晶化后的TiO2壳层疏松多介孔,增加了活性位点,有利于传质。  相似文献   
8.
A series of new donor–acceptor cryptands, where pyramidalized donor (azaadamantane) and acceptor (bora/ala/adamantane) molecules are spatially oriented toward each other and linked via aromatic spacer, are constructed and computationally studied at M06-2X and ωB97X-D levels of theory. Kinetic stability of the perfluorinated bora- and ala-adamantane with respect to F migration to group 13 element is demonstrated. The effectiveness of the constructed cryptands, featuring pyramidalized perfluorinated acceptor moieties, in the heterolytic splitting of molecular hydrogen is predicted. Hydrogen splitting is highly exothermic and exergonic and is accompanied by small activation barriers. The most promising candidates for the experimental studies are identified. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
9.
Developing clean and sustainable energies as alternatives to fossil fuels is in strong demand within modern society. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the efficiency-limiting process in plenty of key renewable energy systems, such as electrochemical water splitting and rechargeable metal–air batteries. In this regard, ongoing efforts have been devoted to seeking high-performance electrocatalysts for enhanced energy conversion efficiency. Apart from traditional precious-metal-based catalysts, nickel-based compounds are the most promising earth-abundant OER catalysts, attracting ever-increasing interest due to high activity and stability. In this review, the recent progress on nickel-based oxide and (oxy)hydroxide composites for water oxidation catalysis in terms of materials design/synthesis and electrochemical performance is summarized. Some underlying mechanisms to profoundly understand the catalytic active sites are also highlighted. In addition, the future research trends and perspectives on the development of Ni-based OER electrocatalysts are discussed.  相似文献   
10.
Recent studies on water‐splitting photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) have demonstrated the intriguing possibility of controlling the spin state in this chemical reaction to form H2 and O2 by exploiting the chirality of organic π‐conjugated supramolecular polymers. Although this fascinating phenomenon has been disclosed, the chiral supramolecular materials reported thus far are not optimized for acting as efficient photosensitizer for dye‐sensitized PECs. In this work we report on the design, synthesis, and characterization of chiral supramolecular aggregates based on C3‐symmetric triphenylamine‐based dyes that are able to both absorb visible light and control the spin state of the process. Variable temperature‐dependent spectroscopic measurements reveal the assembly process of the dyes and confirm the formation of chiral aggregates, both in solution as well as on solid supports. Photoelectrochemical measurements on TiO2‐based anodes validate the advantage of using chiral supramolecular aggregates as photosensitizer displaying higher photocurrent compared to achiral analogues. Moreover, fluorimetric tests for the quantification of the hydrogen peroxide produced, confirm the possibility of controlling the spin of the reaction exerting spin‐selection with chiral supramolecular polymers. These results represent a further step towards the next‐generation of organic‐based water‐splitting solar cells.  相似文献   
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