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Carotenoids are an essential component of cashew and can be used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, natural pigment, food additives, among other applications. The present work focuses on optimizing and comparing conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. Every optimization step took place with a 1:1 (w:w) mixture of yellow and red cashew apples lyophilized and ground in a cryogenic mill. A Simplex-centroid design was applied for both methods, and the solvents acetone, methanol, ethanol, and petroleum ether were evaluated. After choosing the extractor solvent, a central composite design was applied to optimize the sample mass (59–201 mg) and extraction time (6–34 min). The optimum conditions for the extractor solvent were 38% acetone, 30% ethanol, and 32% petroleum ether for CE and a mixture of 44% acetone and 56% methanol for UAE. The best experimental conditions for UAE were a sonication time of 19 min and a sample mass of 153 mg, while the CE was 23 min and 136 mg. Comparing red and yellow cashews, red cashews showed a higher carotenoid content in both methodologies. The UAE methodology was ca. 21% faster, presented a more straightforward composition of extracting solution, showed an average yield of superior carotenoid content in all samples compared to CE. Therefore, UAE has demonstrated a simple, efficient, fast, low-cost adjustment methodology and a reliable alternative for other applications involving these bioactive compounds in the studied or similar matrix.  相似文献   
A novel strategy for the surface functionalization of emulsion‐templated highly porous (polyHIPE) materials as well as its application to in vitro 3D cell culture is presented. A heterobifunctional linker that consists of an amine‐reactive N‐hydroxysuccinimide ester and a photoactivatable nitrophenyl azide, N‐sulfosuccinimidyl‐6‐(4′‐azido‐2′‐nitrophenylamino)hexanoate (sulfo‐SANPAH), is utilized to functionalize polyHIPE surfaces. The ability to conjugate a range of compounds (6‐aminofluorescein, heptafluorobutylamine, poly(ethylene glycol) bis‐amine, and fibronectin) to the polyHIPE surface is demonstrated using fluorescence imaging, FTIR spectroscopy, and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared to other existing surface functionalization methods for polyHIPE materials, this approach is facile, efficient, versatile, and benign. It can also be used to attach biomolecules to polyHIPE surfaces including cell adhesion‐promoting extracellular matrix proteins. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that the fibronectin‐conjugated polyHIPE scaffolds improve the adhesion and function of primary human endometrial stromal cells. It is believed that this approach can be employed to produce the next generation of polyHIPE scaffolds with tailored surface functionality, enhancing their application in 3D cell culture and tissue engineering whilst broadening the scope of applications to a wider range of cell types.  相似文献   
Biomaterial scaffolds are the cornerstone to supporting 3D tissue growth. Optimized scaffold design is critical to successful regeneration, and this optimization requires accurate knowledge of the scaffold's interaction with living tissue in the dynamic in vivo milieu. Unfortunately, non‐invasive methods that can probe scaffolds in the intact living subject are largely underexplored, with imaging‐based assessment relying on either imaging cells seeded on the scaffold or imaging scaffolds that have been chemically altered. In this work, the authors develop a broadly applicable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to image scaffolds directly. A positive‐contrast “bright” manganese porphyrin (MnP) agent for labeling scaffolds is used to achieve high sensitivity and specificity, and polydopamine, a biologically derived universal adhesive, is employed for adhering the MnP. The technique was optimized in vitro on a prototypic collagen gel, and in vivo assessment was performed in rats. The results demonstrate superior in vivo scaffold visualization and the potential for quantitative tracking of degradation over time. Designed with ease of synthesis in mind and general applicability for the continuing expansion of available biomaterials, the proposed method will allow tissue engineers to assess and fine‐tune the in vivo behavior of their scaffolds for optimal regeneration.  相似文献   
建立了一种细胞趋硬性迁移的理论模型和有限元分析框架,为连续变刚度人工基质的试验设计提供理论依据。考虑了细胞体的黏弹性属性,以及细胞与基质间的配受体动态反应过程,并以配受体合成时间为时间步长,将细胞运动方程化为静力学形式进行求解。对有限元过程提出一种动约束,便于消除其结构矩阵的奇异性。结果表明,模型能够模拟黏着斑内部力的快速波动现象,细胞的运动速度与观测数据一致,可有效模拟20,h以上的长时程问题。  相似文献   
Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) exhibit geometric and volumetric shape change when actuated by an external stimulus and can be fabricated as foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. These materials have applications in multiple industries such as textiles, biomedical devices, tissue engineering, and aerospace. This review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with a focus on fabrication methods, methods of characterization, modes of actuation, and applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016 , 54, 1300–1318  相似文献   
采用糖球模板法结合热致相分离技术,制备了孔径尺寸、内连通度及孔隙率高度可控的左旋聚乳酸(PLLA)支架材料,并通过扫描电镜(SEM)、红外光谱(FTIR)以及示差扫描量热法(DSC)对其空间结构及性能进行了系统研究.支架材料孔径从50μm到800μm及内连通孔径从10μm到200μm连续可调,微观孔壁结构根据不同溶剂可形成各异的微纳米结构.支架的制备对PLLA化学结构无显著影响,但相分离过程会不同程度地降低PLLA的结晶度.  相似文献   
When an isotropic material is subject to a uniaxial tension, the principal strain transverse to the direction of applied load is always negative. However, in fiber reinforced materials the transverse principal strain can change its sign as the load increases, passing through the zero-points, known as perversions. We investigate how the number of perversions in a material reinforced by two symmetrically aligned families of distributed fibers depends both on the degree of fiber dispersion and the model used for fiber dispersion. Angular integration and three variants of the generalized structure tensor approach are considered and discussed. The study of perversions clearly demonstrates the qualitative difference between these approaches in the case of high dispersion of fibers. The results suggest that this difference is primarily due to the way compressive fibers are modeled.  相似文献   
根据皮肤组织解剖结构特性建立了六层层状模型,并给出了皮肤组织各层的特性参数;考虑了氧合血红蛋白和还原血红蛋白的吸收特性,依据皮肤组织各层的水、血、脂肪、血氧饱和度含量以及血管大小给出了皮肤组织各层的光谱吸收系数;对不同波长散射系数做了适当简化,给出了皮肤组织各层的光谱散射系数。利用蒙特卡罗方法仿真血管组织在收缩与舒张两种状态下, 400~1 000 nm波长光在皮肤组织多层模型中的传输过程,并通过统计大量光子的分布特性,获得了皮肤组织光谱反射系数,并利用模拟所得的两种状态下的反射系数计算得到了光谱容积脉搏波幅度。仿真结果表明,当入射光强一定时,绿光的容积脉搏波幅度优于红光和蓝光。通过计算不同波长光沿皮肤组织深度方向光能流率衰减为1/e时对应的皮肤组织深度,获得了皮肤组织光谱穿透深度。结果显示,血管舒张状态下蓝光和绿光的穿透深度较小,蓝光大部分只能达到表皮层,绿光能到达微循环层,红光可直达真皮层。考虑到光在皮肤组织中传播包含了一个从收缩到舒张的动态过程,基于此,根据穿透深度定义了脉搏波信号产生深度,利用血管舒张与收缩两种不同状态下的穿透深度计算得到了光谱产生深度。结果表明,不同波长光产生深度大于其穿透深度,蓝光产生深度较浅,且其受到的血液吸收调制较小,因而其获得的脉搏信号易受噪声干扰;红光的容积脉搏波产生深度较大,但是相比于绿光其受血液吸收调制较小,且绿光产生深度足够达到真皮血管层,因而红光容积脉搏波的幅度小于绿光。上述仿真结果明确了皮肤组织部分光谱特性,为皮肤组织多光谱容积脉搏波的精确获取及其他相关研究提供了一定的理论基础。  相似文献   
The synthesis of poly(2‐oxazoline)s has been known since the 1960s. In the last two decades, they have risen in popularity thanks to improvements in their synthesis and the realization of their potential in the biomedical field due to their “stealth” properties, stimuli responsiveness, and tailorable properties. Even though the bulk of the research to date has been on linear forms of the polymer, they are also of interest for creating network structures due to the relatively easy introduction of reactive functional groups during synthesis that can be cross‐linked under a variety of conditions. This opinion article briefly reviews the history of poly(2‐oxazoline)s and examines the in vivo data on soluble poly(2‐oxazoline)s to date in an effort to predict how hydrogels may perform as implantable materials. This is followed by an overview of the most recent hydrogel synthesis methods and emerging applications, and is concluded with a section on the future directions predicted for these fascinating yet underutilized polymers.  相似文献   
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death. Damaged heart muscle is the etiology of heart failure. Heart failure is the most frequent cause of hospital and emergency room admissions. As a differentiated organ, current therapeutics and techniques can not repair or replace the damaged myocardial tissue. Myocardial tissue engineering is one of the promising treatment modalities for repairing damaged heart tissue in patients with heart failure. In this work, random Polylactic acid (PLA), Polylactic acid/Polyethylene glycol (PLA/PEG) and random and aligned Polylactic acid/Polyethylene glycol/Collagen (PLA/PEG/COL) nanofiber patches were successfully produced by the electrospinning technique. In vitro cytotoxic test (MTT), morphological (SEM), molecular interactions between the components (FT-IR), thermal analysis (DSC), tensile strength and physical analysis were carried out after production. The resulting nanofiber patches exhibited beadless and smooth structures. When the fiber diameters were examined, it was observed that the collagen doped random nanofiber patches had the lowest fiber diameter value (755 nm). Mechanical characterization results showed that aligned nanofiber patches had maximum tensile strength (5.90 MPa) values compared to PLA, PLA/PEG, and PLA/PEG/COL (random). In vitro degradation test reported that aligned patch had the highest degradation ratio. The produced patches displayed good alignment with tissue on cardiomyocyte cell morphology studies. In conclusion, newly produced patches have noticeable potential as a tissue-like cardiac patch for regeneration efforts after myocardial infarction.  相似文献   
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