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1.
Porous media investigation by X-ray microtomography allows obtaining valuable quantitative and qualitative information, while preserving sample integrity. Modern X-ray nanotomography or Synchrotron radiation systems may distinguish structures sized only hundreds of nanometers. However, pores sized less than a few microns (microporosity) may be undetectable due to the system’s spatial resolution and noise in microfocus sources, compromising the quality of the measurement. In this study a dual-energy methodology was developed to generate density-based images from two scans made at two different voltages (80 kV and 130 KV) with a microfocus bench-top microtomography system. The images obtained were quantized in 256 gray levels, where the lowest value (zero) corresponded to voids and the highest value (255) corresponded to the densest regions mapped. From density images and single energy images, porosity was evaluated and compared. Results indicate that density images present better results than single energy images when both are compared with porosity obtained by the helium injection method. In addition, images acquired in dual-energy show good agreement with the sample’s real density values.  相似文献   
2.
Monolayer ZrO2 and TiO2 films were prepared on BK7 glass by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and were subsequently annealed for 1 h at 300 °C. By using the transmission spectra of two samples and the envelope method, the refractive index dispersion and extinction coefficients have been calculated. Laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurement shows that despite slight differences between the extinction coefficients of the two samples, the LIDT parameter of the ZrO2 film is greater than that of the TiO2 film. This fact leads us to consider thermal conductivity as an important parameter for interpreting the LIDT difference. According to our theoretical analysis, as a consequence of increase in the number of thermal barriers along poorer film, its thermal conductivity, and hence LIDT, decreased, which is in agreement with our experimental results. The measured porosity of the two samples shows higher porosity for TiO2 single layer, which is in agreement with atomic force (AFM) images. The gradual and smooth damage morphology of ZrO2 observed in optical images implies higher thermal conductivity than TiO2.  相似文献   
3.
The aim of this work is to evaluate the dynamic properties of nonwoven flax, hemp, kenaf and glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Also, the influence of some parameters, such as the type of reinforcement, the fibre/matrix weight ratio, the fibre orientation and the porosity content, on the damping behaviour of these nonwoven composites is investigated. To this end, a free flexural vibrations analysis was conducted to experimentally identify their natural frequencies and their associated loss factors. The obtained results show that the nonwoven composites reinforced by natural fibres present higher loss factors compared with those of the glass-PP composite. These interesting damping properties make these nonwoven composites very attractive for automotive applications where the dissipation of vibrations is highly requested.  相似文献   
4.
The present paper investigates phenomena brought about into the classic peristaltic mechanism by inclusion of non-Newtonian effects through a porous space in a channel. The peristaltic motion of a second-order fluid through a porous medium was studied for the case of a planar channel with harmonically undulating extensible walls. The system of the governing nonlinear PDE is solved by using the perturbation method to second-order in dimensionless wavenumber. The analytic solution has been obtained in the form of a stream function from which the axial pressure gradient has been derived. The flow is investigated in a wave frame of reference moving with velocity of the wave. Numerical calculations are carried out for the pressure rise and frictional force. The features of the flow characteristics are analyzed by plotting graphs and discussed in detail.  相似文献   
5.
ZnS films were deposited on porous silicon (PS) substrates with different porosities. With the increase of PS substrate porosity, the XRD diffraction peak intensity decreases and the surface morphology of the ZnS films becomes rougher. Voids appear in the films, due to the increased roughness of PS structure. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the samples before and after deposition of ZnS were measured to study the effect of substrate porosity on the luminescence properties of ZnS/PS composites. As-prepared PS substrates emit strong red light. The red PL peak of PS after deposition of ZnS shows an obvious blueshift. As PS substrate porosity increases, the trend of blueshift increases. A green emission at about 550 nm was also observed when the porosity of PS increased, which is ascribed to the defect-center luminescence of ZnS. The effect of annealing time on the structural and luminescence properties of ZnS/PS composites were also studied. With the increase of annealing time, the XRD diffraction peak intensity and the self-activated luminescence intensity of ZnS increase, and, the surface morphology of the ZnS films becomes smooth and compact. However, the red emission intensity of PS decreases, which was associated with a redshift. White light emission was obtained by combining the luminescence of ZnS with the luminescence of PS.  相似文献   
6.
The reaction of NiII with a tetra‐benzoate pyrene ligand produces a 3D porous framework based on infinite 1D NiII chains. The NiII–O connectivity and the formation of a hydroxo‐bridge (μ3‐OH) responsible for the connection of the central NiII atoms within the 1D NiII–(μ3‐OH)2–NiII chains can be straightforwardly compared with the TiIV–O–TiIV connectivity seen in TiO2. The arrangement of the TBAPy ligand around the 1D rutile‐based chains leads in the generation of a porous framework with two distinct types of pores; based on the chemistries of these two types of pores, one can be labelled as hydrophobic and the other as hydrophilic. The use of different activation methods results in the generation of either a porous framework free of guest molecules or a completely solvent‐free material, in which the terminal H2O molecules bound to NiII were removed, leading thus to a framework with open NiII sites. CO2 isotherms collected on both frameworks at 195 K and one barshowed type I isotherms characteristic of microporous materials (BET surface areas for: guest‐free framework: 257(3) m2 · g–1; solvent‐free framework: 362(2) m2 · g–1). The affinity of both networks at zero coverage for both CO2 and CH4 was found to be greater when the unsaturated NiII sites are available within the void space.  相似文献   
7.
The main objective of this work was to investigate the development of porosity in solid residues from the thermal decomposition of the polymer, poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA). PPTA chars were prepared at different temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction and physical adsorption of CO2 at 0 °C. The carbonization temperatures were selected on the basis of thermogravimetric analysis results. The effect of introducing an isothermal treatment at 500 °C on the characteristics of the resulting chars was also studied. It was found that this pre-treatment lowers the decomposition temperature of PPTA and yields a somewhat less ordered material than in the case of pyrolysis under a constant heating rate. The micropore volume increases with increasing heat treatment temperature for both series of samples. The mean micropore size decreases for the two series of chars until the 700-800 °C interval; above these temperatures, this evolution is reversed. The micropore volume of the samples submitted to the isothermal treatment is higher than when PPTA is treated under a constant heating rate. Likewise, the pore size distribution is more heterogeneous when the intermediate isothermal treatment at 500 °C is introduced during PPTA pyrolysis. Some differences between porosity development in chars from PPTA and other high thermal stability polymers were explained on the basis of different mechanistic features in polymer pyrolysis.  相似文献   
8.
Highly ordered SBA-15 nanoporous silica containing ethylene, phenylene bridges or/and amine, thiol, vinyl and phenyl surface groups were synthesized by using amphiphilic block copolymer as the structure-directing agent. The XRD data shows high degree of the order of the final structures. Obtained materials have well-developed porous structure—values of specific surface area are in the range 700–1050 m2/g and the sizes of cylindrical mesopores are in the range 6.5–9.5 nm. It was determined that size of the mesopores strongly depends even on small amounts of co-monomers co-condensing with TEOS. A new technique to introduce some amount of pendant amine groups by co-condensation of proper monomers has been proposed. Tetragonal structure was obtained when small amount of vinyl groups was introduced to the system. A new approach of determining pore size based only on the XRD measurements was compared with KJS method, confirming full usefulness of the former for calculation of the size of mesopores in SBA-15 materials. Dedicated to Professor Mietek Jaroniec on the occasion of his 60th birthday.  相似文献   
9.
粉末注射成形坯是一种具有分形特性的典型的多孔介质,借助于多孔介质孔隙结构的分形理论,对粉末注射成形坯孔隙率的分形模型进行推导。首先分析了粉末注射成形坯孔隙结构的双重分形特性,介绍了粉末注射成形坯孔隙分布分形维数和孔隙迂曲分形维数,然后推导出粉末注射成形坯孔隙度的分形模型。  相似文献   
10.
Coal-based honeycomb monoliths extruded using methods developed for ceramic materials have been used to retain methylene blue and p-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions. The influence of the filters’ thermal treatment on their textural properties and performance as adsorbents was examined. Characterization by N2 physisorption, mercury porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy along with adsorption tests under dynamic conditions suggest that, depending on the pollutant and its initial concentration, it can be more convenient to previously submit the monoliths to a simple carbonization or to an additional activation, with or without preoxidation, as a consequence of their different resulting pore structures. Infrared spectroscopy indicates that their different adsorption behaviour seems not to be related to differences in their surface chemical groups. In addition, axial crushing tests show that the monoliths have an acceptable mechanical resistance for the application investigated.  相似文献   
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