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1.

This paper deals mainly with generalizations of results in finitary combinatorics to infinite ordinals. It is well-known that for finite ordinals ∑

_{bT<αβ}is the number of 2-element subsets of an α-element set. It is shown here that for any well-ordered set of arbitrary infinite order type α, ∑_{bT<αβ}is the ordinal of the set*M*of 2-element subsets, where*M*is ordered in some natural way. The result is then extended to evaluating the ordinal of the set of all*n*-element subsets for each natural number*n*≥ 2. Moreover, series ∑_{β<α}f(β) are investigated and evaluated, where α is a limit ordinal and the function*f*belongs to a certain class of functions containing polynomials with natural number coefficients. The tools developed for this result can be extended to cover all infinite α, but the case of finite α appears to be quite problematic. 相似文献2.

P.A. Ramachandran 《Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations》2006,22(4):831-846

Time‐dependent differential equations can be solved using the concept of method of lines (MOL) together with the boundary element (BE) representation for the spatial linear part of the equation. The BE method alleviates the need for spatial discretization and casts the problem in an integral format. Hence errors associated with the numerical approximation of the spatial derivatives are totally eliminated. An element level local cubic approximation is used for the variable at each time step to facilitate the time marching and the nonlinear terms are represented in a semi‐implicit manner by a local linearization at each time step. The accuracy of the method has been illustrated on a number of test problems of engineering significance. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 2006 相似文献

3.

We extend the matrix version of Cochran's statistical theorem to outer inverses of a matrix. As applications, we investigate the Wishartness and independence of matrix quadratic forms for Kronecker product covariance structures. 相似文献

4.

Deborah M. Greaves 《国际流体数值方法杂志》2006,50(6):693-711

An adaptive hierarchical grid‐based method for predicting complex free surface flows is used to simulate collapse of a water column. Adapting quadtree grids are combined with a high‐resolution interface‐capturing approach and pressure‐based coupling of the Navier–Stokes equations. The Navier–Stokes flow solution scheme is verified for simulation of flow in a lid‐driven cavity at

*Re*=1000. Two approaches to the coupling of the Navier–Stokes equations are investigated as are alternative face velocity and hanging node interpolations. Collapse of a water column as well as collapse of a water column and its subsequent interaction with an obstacle are simulated. The calculations are made on uniform and adapting quadtree grids, and the accuracy of the quadtree calculations is shown to be the same as those made on the equivalent uniform grids. Results are in excellent agreement with experimental and other numerical data. A sharp interface is maintained at the free surface. The new adapting quadtree‐based method achieves a considerable saving in the size of the computational grid and CPU time in comparison with calculations made on equivalent uniform grids. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献5.

We consider the plane-strain buckling of a cylindrical shellof arbitrary thickness which is made of a Varga material andis subjected to an external hydrostatic pressure on its outersurface. The WKB method is used to solve the eigenvalue problemthat results from the linear bifurcation analysis. We show thatthe circular cross-section buckles into a non-circular shapeat a value of µ

_{1}which depends on*A*_{1}/*A*_{2}and a mode number,where*A*_{1}and*A*_{2}are the undeformed inner and outer radii, andµ_{1}is the ratio of the deformed inner radius to*A*_{1}. Inthe large mode number limit, we find that the dependence ofµ_{1}on*A*_{1}/*A*_{2}has a boundary layer structure: it is constantover almost the entire region of 0 <*A*_{1}/*A*_{2}< 1 and decreasessharply from this constant value to unity as*A*_{1}/*A*_{2}tends tounity. Our asymptotic results for*A*_{1}– 1 = O(1) and*A*_{1}– 1 = O(1/*n*) are shown to agree with the numerical resultsobtained by using the compound matrix method. 相似文献6.

We treat here of the question of absorbing boundary conditionsfor nonlinear diffusion equations. We use the conditions designedfor the linear equation, we prove them to be well posed forthe nonlinear problem, and through numerical experiments thatthey are well suited for reaction–diffusion equations. 相似文献

7.

Rhythmic growth of ring‐banded spherulites in blends of liquid crystalline methoxy‐poly(aryl ether ketone) (M‐PAEK) and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK) has been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The measurements reveal that the formation of the rhythmically grown ring‐banded spherulites in the M‐PAEK/PEEK blends is strongly dependent on the blend composition. In the M‐PAEK‐rich blends, upon cooling, an unusual ring‐banded spherulite is formed, which is ascribed to structural discontinuity caused by a rhythmic radial growth. For the 50:50 M‐PAEK/PEEK blend, ring‐banded spherulites and individual PEEK spherulites coexist in the system. In the blends with PEEK as the predominant component, M‐PAEK is rejected into the boundary of PEEK spherulites. The cooling rate and crystallization temperature have great effect on the phase behavior, especially the ring‐banded spherulite formation in the blends. In addition, the effects of M‐PAEK phase transition rate and phase separation rate on banded spherulite formation is discussed. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 45: 3011–3024, 2007 相似文献

8.

N. Fitier 《国际流体数值方法杂志》2003,42(12):1345-1361

There is a growing interest in developing numerical tools to investigate the onset of physical instabilities observed in experiments involving viscoelastic flows, which is a difficult and challenging task as the simulations are very sensitive to numerical instabilities. Following a recent linear stability analysis carried out in order to better understand qualitatively the origin of numerical instabilities occurring in the simulation of flows viscoelastic fluids, the present paper considers a possible extension for more complex flows. This promising method could be applied to track instabilities in complex (i.e. essentially non‐parallel) flows. In addition, results related to transient growth mechanism indicate that it might be responsible for the development of numerical instabilities in the simulation of viscoelastic fluids. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

9.

Peixiang Xing Gilles P. Robertson Michael D. Guiver Serguei D. Mikhailenko Serge Kaliaguine 《Journal of polymer science. Part A, Polymer chemistry》2004,42(12):2866-2876

A series of sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone)s (SPAEKs) were prepared by aromatic nucleophilic polycondensation of 2,6‐dihydroxynaphthalene with 5,5′‐carbonyl‐bis(2‐fluorobenzenesulfonate) and 4,4′‐difluorobenzophenone. The structure and degree of sulfonation (DS) of the SPAEKs were characterized using

^{1}H NMR spectroscopy. The experimentally observed DS values were close to the expected values derived from the starting material ratios. The thermal stabilities of the SPAEKs were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, which showed that in acid and sodium salt forms they were thermally stable in air up to about 240 and 380 °C, respectively. Transparent membranes cast from the directly polymerized SPAEKs exhibited good mechanical properties in both dry and hydrated states. The dependence of water uptake and of membrane swelling on the DS at different temperatures was studied. SPAEK membranes with a DS from 0.72 to 1.60 maintained adequate mechanical properties after immersion in water at 80 °C for 24 h. The proton conductivity of SPAEK membranes with different degrees of sulfonation was measured as a function of temperature. The proton conductivity of the SPAEK films increased with increased DS, and the highest room temperature conductivity (4.2 × 10^{?2}S/cm) was recorded for a SPAEK membrane with a DS of 1.60, which further increased to 1.1 × 10^{?1}S/cm at 80 °C. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 2866–2876, 2004 相似文献10.

Alberto Mariani Simone Bidali Stefano Fiori Marco Sangermano Giulio Malucelli Roberta Bongiovanni Aldo Priola 《Journal of polymer science. Part A, Polymer chemistry》2004,42(9):2066-2072

By combining frontal polymerization and radical‐induced cationic polymerization, it was possible to cure thick samples of an epoxy monomer bleached by UV light. The effect of the relative amounts of cationic photoinitiator and radical initiator was thoroughly investigated and was related to the front's velocity and its maximum temperature. The materials obtained were characterized by quantitative conversion also in the deeper layers, not reached by UV light. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 2066–2072, 2004 相似文献