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1.
Methods of automatic computer analyses of images have large impotence in numerous physical problems with different kinds of radiations, which use such solid-state detectors as nuclear photographic emulsions, plastics and others. We described a method of expanding boundaries of dark areas for such computer analyses of micro-pictures. We demonstrated effectiveness of this method by the example of the search of microcrystals size distributions in two undeveloped nuclear emulsions and similar distribution of background grains in the developed emulsion.  相似文献   
2.
力学可以为农业现代化作贡献   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
华云龙  董务民 《力学进展》1998,28(3):289-298
农业现代化提出了许多与力学各个分支都有密切关系的问题.从农田耕作、农业物料性质、农产品烘干、水果和蔬菜生产、农业生物环境、节水灌溉、农业水土资源合理利用和作物生长等方面,介绍了有关的力学问题和目前的研究进展.  相似文献   
3.
A theoretical model is suggested to mathematically describe the effect of thermal diffusion from a sand-bed on evolution of a wind-blown sand flow.An upward wind field is engendered by the thermal diffusion and the coupling interaction among the horizontal and upward wind flow,saltating grains,and a kind of electrostatic force exerted on the grains are considered in this theoretical model.The numerical results show that the effect of the thermal diffusion on the evolution process of wind-blown grain flow is quite obvious and very similar to the effect of the electrostatic force on the evolution.Not only the time for the entire system to reach a steady state(called the duration time),the transport rate of grains,the mass-flux profiles and the trajectory of saltating grains are affected by the thermal diffusion and the electrostatic force exerted on saltating grains, but also the wind profiles and the temperature profiles at the steady state are affected by the wind-blown sand flow.  相似文献   
4.
Abstract

An aliphatic ester of hydroxysalicylic acid (6), reported for the first time from a natural source in addition to five known compounds were isolated from the fermented Carica papaya L. preparation, a commercialized functional food. The known compounds were identified as 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (1), trans-caffeic acid (2), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (butylparaben) (3), lycopene (4), benzyl isothiocyanate (5). Compounds 1 and 3 were reported for the first time from Papaya fruits through this study. The new compound showed a moderate antioxidant activity and a potent hair growth stimulating activity in vitro.  相似文献   
5.
The effect of annealing condition on the microstructure evolution, together with mechanical properties of Fe-28.5Ni steel processed by one and six cycles of accumulative roll bonding (ARB), was explored. The evolution of microstructure was studied by means of Electron Backscattered Diffraction method. The ARB-processed specimens were annealed for 30 minutes between 500°C and 600°C, and the effect of these annealing processes was elaborated. Results showed a significantly reduced martensite phase during ARB process cycles. Moreover, a refined and stabilised ultrafine structure was obtained in 6-cycle ARB-processed specimen. Results also show that by annealing the 1-cycle specimen at 550°C, no significant microstructural change and mechanical properties variation are identified. As such, no significant microstructural change and mechanical properties variation were notified for annealing of 6-cycle ARB-processed specimen at 500°C. However, annealing at 600°C in both conditions led to a complete recrystallisation of the deformed structure. Annealing at 550°C in 6-cycle ARB-processed specimen showed partial recrystallisation as well as an abnormal grain growth characteristic. The abnormal grain growth was seen by annealing of 1-cycle ARB-processed specimen at 600°C. The changing features of dislocations were discussed in these specimens in terms of changing the dynamics of low- and high-angle grain boundaries. Tensile test results also showed a significant increase in the yield/ultimate tensile strengths with the application of ARB cycles. Although ARB process led to a rapid reduction of total elongation, full restoration during high-temperature annealing returned this value back to the initial, non-deformed, condition.  相似文献   
6.
S.P. Gido 《哲学杂志》2013,93(9):771-787
The microstructure of anisotropically shaped grains can strongly influence a range of material properties, including transport, mechanical and electro-optical. A grain-structure-related phenomenon, known as excluded volume epitaxy (EVE), is reported in this study. EVE is a local, inter-grain orientational correlations effect, which results from a combination of continuous nucleation of anisotropic grains and impingement of growing grains. Due to EVE, anisotropically shaped grains have a tendency to be similarly aligned in a local neighbourhood, despite the absence of any forced global orientation in the sample. The effect has been repeatedly observed by the authors in block copolymers, as illustrated by a representative TEM image. Optical microscopy of anisotropically shaped non-polymeric crystals revealed the generality of this effect. The simulation study revealed a tendency for azimuthal, inter-grain orientational correlation and re-confirmed the experimental observation of EVE.  相似文献   
7.
We report that nano‐emulsions can be creatively used as a morphology selective synthesis method to prepare not only nano‐grains but also nano‐fibers with high selectivity. Synthesis of the two different morphological materials was demonstrated using polyaniline synthesis as a model case. Polyaniline nano‐grains were synthesized from aniline molecules in nano‐size aqueous droplets as polymerization sites whose droplets were generated by inverse water‐in‐oil nano‐emulsion use, and polyaniline nano‐fibers were synthesized from aniline in aqueous nano‐dimensional channels as polymerization sites whose channels were generated by direct oil‐in‐water nano‐emulsion use containing high population of oil droplets. Using the approaches, we successfully synthesized nano‐fibers of 60 nm diameter with 0.5 µm length and also nano‐grains having diameter of 60–80 nm. The two different polymerization sites of nano‐scale dimension were made by changing the ratio among surfactant, aqueous aniline/HCl solution, and oil, i.e. organic solvent. We found the nano‐fibers synthesized from the channels formed by the direct oil‐in‐water nano‐emulsion have higher bulk electrical conductivity than the nano‐grains which were synthesized from the droplets formed by the inverse water‐in‐oil emulsion. We also found that the emulsion use allows us to use a room temperature synthesis unlike conventional synthesis methods which require to use ice bath temperature. Physical properties of both nano‐fibers and nano‐grains synthesized were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV–Vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and four probes conductivity measurement. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
8.
A photopolymerization process that simultaneously deposits electronically conducting polymer films and incorporates nanophase silver grains within the films, the silver grains having been formed in situ on irradiating cast, photopolymerizable formulations containing silver salts, was developed. Polymer films produced from formulations containing large organic anions were very flexible and strongly adherent to substrates. Polypyrrole films containing silver grains were characterized electronically on measuring their electronic conductivities and electrochemically on recording their cyclic voltammetric profiles. Conductivities were affected by the chemical identity and concentration of components added to photopolymerizable formulations. The best photopolymerized films had a conductivity of the order of 1 S cm−1. Electronically conducting films derived from formulations consisting of a monomer, an electron acceptor/“dopant,” and a photoinitiator were electrochemically active. They possessed long-term stability under extended electrode potential cycling conditions, acceptable charge storage capacity, and the ability to oxidize or reduce redox couples in solution. Paper submitted for inclusion in the special issue of the Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry honouring the 85th birthday of Professor John O’M. Bockris.  相似文献   
9.
Fast (14 MeV) neutrons have been successfully used in investigating the protein content of different food grains (Soya Beans, Sorghum, Maize and Beans) locally grown and consumed in Nigeria. Protein was estimated via nitrogen using the 14N(n, 2n)13N reaction. Quantification of nitrogen was achieved through a γ-γ coincidence counting of 511 keV positron emissions from the decaying 13N. The implication of the use of the emitted annihilation positrons, the interference introduced in the analytical energy spectra from other activated target nuclides present in the sample, as well as possible proton “knock on” reactions anticipated from cellulose in grain matrix were assessed, and their contributions to the 511 keV gamma energy resolved. For comparative purposes, replicates of samples analyzed through Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) were investigated using the Kjeldahl method. The samples were carried through the Kjeldahl process of pre-digestion (with appropriate catalysts), digestion and titration. The results obtained through the Kjeldahl process were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using FNAA although slightly lower. Protein content (%) of Nigerian grains analyzed varied from a low 8.75 ± 2.96 for sorghum to 35.93 ± 0.31 for soya beans.  相似文献   
10.
根据用原子力显微镜对在不同温度下晶化的Fe基非晶合金薄带三维介观结构的观察,结合X射线衍射、Mssbauer谱等前人已有的实验结果并在目前已有的理论研究基础上,对Fe基非晶合金薄带在不同温度下的晶化过程进行了系统的分析、研究,提出了两种Nb-B框架介观结构、团聚相和单位体积纳米晶粒平均数等新概念,建立了Fe基纳米晶合金的晶化机理假说,提出了描述Fe基非晶合金晶化过程的介观织构模型.这个模型能够演化成二相结构模型和三相互套结构模型,还可以合理地解释现有的实验结果以及500—600℃退火中Fe基纳米晶巨磁阻 关键词: Fe基纳米晶合金 晶化机理 两种Nb-B框架介观结构 团聚相  相似文献   
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