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1.
In this study, the transverse relaxation time (T2) of activated carbon (AC) in different relative environment humidity was detected firstly by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LFNMR). The pore size (diameter) of AC distributions was calculated by the relationship between T2 and surface relaxation rate (ρ), where ρ was obtained by the detection of nine porous materials with known pore size. The results showed that the pore size distributions of AC calculated by ρ < 0.19 nm/ms were in good agreement with that obtained by nitrogen adsorption method and proved that LFNMR as a new detection method was feasible for characterizing AC pore size distribution.  相似文献   
2.
The coordination chemistry of f-block elements (lanthanide and actinide) in molten salts has become a resounding topic in view of its great importance to the research and development (R&D) of molten salt reactors and pyroprocessing. In this Review article, a general overview of the coordination chemistry of f-block elements in molten salts is provided including past achievements and recent advances. Particular emphases are placed on the oxidation state, speciation, and solution structure of f-block metal ions in molten salts, as well as their relationships with the salt composition. Furthermore, this review briefly discusses the spectroscopic and theoretical methods that complement each other in revealing the coordination properties.  相似文献   
3.
At present, the reactivity of cyclic alkanes is estimated by comparison with acyclic hydrocarbons. Due to the difference in the structure of cycloalkanes and acycloalkanes, the thermodynamic data obtained by analogy are not applicable. In this study, a molecular beam sampling vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MB-VUV-PI-TOFMS) was applied to study the low-temperature oxidation of cyclopentane (CPT) at a total pressure range from 1–3 atm and low-temperature range between 500 and 800 K. Low-temperature reaction products including cyclic olefins, cyclic ethers, and highly oxygenated intermediates (e. g., ketohydroperoxide KHP, keto-dihydroperoxide KDHP, olefinic hydroperoxides OHP and ketone structure products) were observed. Further investigation of the oxidation of CPT – electronic structure calculations – were carried out at the UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVDZ//B3LYP/6-31+ G(d,p) level to explore the reactivity of O2 molecules adding sequentially to cyclopentyl radicals. Experimental and theoretical observations showed that the dominant product channel in the reaction of CPT radicals with O2 is HO2 elimination yielding cyclopentene. The pathways of second and third O2 addition – the dissociation of hydroperoxide – were further confirmed. The results of this study will develop the low-temperature oxidation mechanism of CPT, which can be used for future research on accurately simulating the combustion process of CPT.  相似文献   
4.
高性能功能材料在诸多领域具有广泛的应用前景,是人们一直关注的研究热点。高压可以有效地改变物质的原子间距和成键方式,是获得新型功能材料的重要途径。在碳材料的高压研究中,许多有趣的功能碳材料,如光学透明碳、高强度弹性碳和超硬非晶碳等,已经通过不同的碳前驱体合成。本文简要介绍了作者近年来在低维碳基纳米复合材料高压研究中取得的进展,基于设计的不同低维碳前驱体,高压下截获了具有超硬特性、新型压致共价聚合及发光增强的碳材料。  相似文献   
5.
The designs of efficient and inexpensive Pt-based catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) are essential to boost the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. Here, the highly catalytic performance PtFe alloys supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorating nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) have been successfully prepared via co-engineering of the surface composition and electronic structure. The Pt1Fe3@NC/MWCNTs catalyst with moderate Fe3+ feeding content (0.86 mA/mgPt) exhibits 2.26-fold enhancement in MOR mass activity compared to pristine Pt/C catalyst (0.38 mA/mgPt). Furthermore, the CO oxidation initial potential of Pt1Fe3@NC/MWCNTs catalyst is lower relative to Pt/C catalyst (0.71 V and 0.80 V). Benefited from the optimal surface compositions, the anti-corrosion ability of MWCNT, strong electron interaction between PtFe alloys and MWCNTs and the N-doped carbon (NC) layer, the Pt1Fe3@NC/MWCNTs catalyst presents an improved MOR performance and anti-CO poisoning ability. This study would open up new perspective for designing efficient electrocatalysts for the DMFCs field.  相似文献   
6.
A single bubble absorption column was used to examine the effect of hydrodynamic on carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) absorption in pure water and water-based nanofluids dispersed with neat, and OH and NH2 functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a surfactant and stabilizer. The maximum absorption of CO2 and H2S were found to be 0.0038 mmol/m2·s and 0.056 mmol/m2·s using NH2-MWCNTs /nanofluid with 0.5 wt% content, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of gases into the nanofluids were computed by using an equation attained based on Dankwert’s theory. A last, an empirical correlation was proposed to determine the Sherwood number for the absorption of the aforementioned gases into the nanofluids.  相似文献   
7.
In this study, we investigated an alternative method for the chemical CO2 reduction reaction in which power ultrasound (488 kHz ultrasonic plate transducer) was applied to CO2-saturated (up to 3%) pure water, NaCl and synthetic seawater solutions. Under ultrasonic conditions, the converted CO2 products were found to be mainly CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 including large amount of CO which was subsequently converted into CH4. We have found that introducing molecular H2 plays a crucial role in the CO2 conversion process and that increasing hydrogen concentration increased the yields of hydrocarbons. However, it was observed that at higher hydrogen concentrations, the overall conversion decreased since hydrogen, a diatomic gas, is known to decrease cavitational activity in liquids. It was also found that 1.0 M NaCl solutions saturated with 2% CO2 + 98% H2 led to maximum hydrocarbon yields (close to 5%) and increasing the salt concentrations further decreased the yield of hydrocarbons due to the combined physical and chemical effects of ultrasound. It was shown that CO2 present in a synthetic industrial flue gas (86.74% N2, 13% CO2, 0.2% O2 and 600 ppm of CO) could be converted into hydrocarbons through this method by diluting the flue gas with hydrogen. Moreover, it was observed that in addition to pure water, synthetic seawater can also be used as an ultrasonicating media for the sonochemical process where the presence of NaCl improves the yields of hydrocarbons by ca. 40%. We have also shown that by using low frequency high-power ultrasound in the absence of catalysts, it is possible to carry out the conversion process at ambient conditions i.e., at room temperature and pressure. We are postulating that each cavitation bubble formed during ultrasonication act as a “micro-reactor” where the so-called Sabatier reaction -CO2+4H2UltrasonicationCH4+2H2O - takes place upon collapse of the bubble. We are naming this novel approach as the “Islam-Pollet-Hihn process”.  相似文献   
8.
蒋峰景  宋涵晨 《化学进展》2022,34(6):1290-1297
液流电池是一种安全性高、使用寿命长、可扩展的大规模储能系统,可以协助电网调峰储能,提高能源利用率,发展前景广阔。双极板是液流电池的重要组成部分。功能上起到了分隔、串联电池、传导电流、为电堆提供结构支撑等作用。从成本构成角度看,双极板的价格占电堆成本的比重也较大。开发高性能、低成本的双极板对加快液流电池的商业化应用具有重要意义,也是目前业界的迫切需求。虽然文献上报道了许多针对液流电池双极板开发的工作,但是目前高性能、低成本的液流电池双极板产品仍无法充分满足市场需求。本文着重介绍了石墨基复合双极板的研究现状,介绍了材料选择、工艺流程对关键性能的影响,对相关工作进行了评述,并为液流电池双极板的开发提出了建议。  相似文献   
9.
Wacker oxidation is an industry-adopted process to transform olefins into value-added epoxides and carbonyls. However, traditional Wacker oxidation involves the use of homogeneous palladium and copper catalysts for the olefin addition and reductive elimination. Here, we demonstrated an ultrahigh loading Cu single atom catalyst(14% Cu, mass fraction) for the palladium-free Wacker oxidation of 4-vinylanisole into the corresponding ketone with N-methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride as an additive under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies by 18O and deuterium isotope labelling revealed a hydrogen shift mechanism in this palladium-free process using N-methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride as the oxygen source. The reaction scope can be further extended to Kucherov oxidation. Our study paves the way to replace noble metal catalysts in the traditional homogeneous processes with single atom catalysts.  相似文献   
10.
BPh3 catalyzes the N-methylation of secondary amines and the C-methylenation (methylene-bridge formation between aromatic rings) of N,N-dimethylanilines or 1-methylindoles in the presence of CO2 and PhSiH3; these reactions proceed at 30–40 °C under solvent-free conditions. In contrast, B(C6F5)3 shows little or no activity. 11B NMR spectra suggested the generation of [HBPh3]. The detailed mechanism of the BPh3-catalyzed N-methylation of N-methylaniline ( 1 ) with CO2 and PhSiH3 was studied by using DFT calculations. BPh3 promotes the conversion of two substrates (N-methylaniline and CO2) into a zwitterionic carbamate to give three-component species [Ph(Me)(H)N+CO2⋅⋅⋅BPh3]. The carbamate and BPh3 act as the nucleophile and Lewis acid, respectively, for the activation of PhSiH3 to generate [HBPh3], which is used to produce key CO2-derived species, such as silyl formate and bis(silyl)acetal, essential for the N-methylation of 1 . DFT calculations also suggested other mechanisms involving water for the generation of [HBPh3] species.  相似文献   
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