首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   10276篇
  免费   944篇
  国内免费   1661篇
化学   10545篇
晶体学   107篇
力学   396篇
综合类   129篇
数学   526篇
物理学   1178篇
  2024年   28篇
  2023年   177篇
  2022年   372篇
  2021年   409篇
  2020年   483篇
  2019年   431篇
  2018年   407篇
  2017年   580篇
  2016年   655篇
  2015年   531篇
  2014年   576篇
  2013年   711篇
  2012年   783篇
  2011年   671篇
  2010年   587篇
  2009年   623篇
  2008年   512篇
  2007年   619篇
  2006年   547篇
  2005年   464篇
  2004年   393篇
  2003年   327篇
  2002年   329篇
  2001年   217篇
  2000年   222篇
  1999年   205篇
  1998年   173篇
  1997年   166篇
  1996年   146篇
  1995年   128篇
  1994年   110篇
  1993年   49篇
  1992年   39篇
  1991年   25篇
  1990年   36篇
  1989年   22篇
  1988年   21篇
  1987年   15篇
  1986年   16篇
  1985年   13篇
  1984年   11篇
  1983年   8篇
  1982年   13篇
  1981年   8篇
  1980年   5篇
  1979年   7篇
  1976年   3篇
  1971年   1篇
  1959年   4篇
  1957年   1篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 109 毫秒
1.
A one-step Rh-catalyzed site-selective ortho-C−H alkynylation of perylene as well as naphthalene mono- and diimides is reported. A single step regioselective access to ortho-C−H alkynylated derivatives of these ryleneimides not only increases the step economy of the ortho-functionalization on these dyes but also provides a quick access route towards highly functionalized dyes that have potential optoelectronic applications. Increased solubility of tetra(triisopropylsilyl)acetylenyl PDIs in organic solvents greatly enhances their utility for further derivatization.  相似文献   
2.
A facile biosynthesis route was followed to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Euphorbia milii (E. milii) leaf constituents. The SEM images exhibited presence of spherical ZnO NPs and the corresponding TEM images disclosed monodisperse nature of the ZnO NPs with diameter ranges between 12 and 20 nm. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis revealed that the ZnO NPs have specific surface area of 20.46 m2/g with pore diameter of 2 nm–10 nm and pore volume of 0.908 cm3/g. The EDAX spectrum exemplified the existence of Zn and O elements and non-appearance of impurities that confirmed pristine nature of the ZnO NPs. The XRD pattern indicated crystalline peaks corresponding to hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO with an average crystallite size of 16.11 nm. The FTIR spectrum displayed strong absorption bands at 512 and 534 cm?1 related to ZnO. The photocatalytic action of ZnO NPs exhibited noteworthy degradation of methylene blue dye under natural sunlight illumination. The maximum degradation efficiency achieved was 98.17% at an illumination period of 50 min. The reusability study proved considerable photostability of the ZnO NPs during photocatalytic experiments. These findings suggest that the E. milii leaf constituents can be utilized as suitable biological source to synthesis ZnO NPs for photocatalytic applications.  相似文献   
3.
Profiling engineered data with robust mining methods continues attracting attention in knowledge engineering systems. The purpose of this article is to propose a simple technique that deals with non-linear multi-factorial multi-characteristic screening suitable for knowledge discovery studies. The method is designed to proactively seek and quantify significant information content in engineered mini-datasets. This is achieved by deploying replicated fractional-factorial sampling schemes. Compiled multi-response data are converted to a single master-response effectuated by a series of distribution-free transformations and multi-compressed data fusions. The resulting amalgamated master response is deciphered by non-linear multi-factorial stealth stochastics intended for saturated schemes. The stealth properties of our method target processing datasets which might be overwhelmed by a lack of knowledge about the nature of reference distributions at play. Stealth features are triggered to overcome restrictions regarding the data normality conformance, the effect sparsity assumption and the inherent collapse of the ‘unexplainable error’ connotation in saturated arrays. The technique is showcased by profiling four ordinary controlling factors that influence webpage content performance by collecting data from a commercial browser monitoring service on a large scale web host. The examined effects are: (1) the number of Cascading Style Sheets files, (2) the number of JavaScript files, (3) the number of Image files, and (4) the Domain Name System Aliasing. The webpage performance level was screened against three popular characteristics: (1) the time to first visual, (2) the total loading time, and (3) the customer satisfaction. Our robust multi-response data mining technique is elucidated for a ten-replicate run study dictated by an L9(34) orthogonal array scheme where any uncontrolled noise embedded contribution has not been necessarily excluded.  相似文献   
4.
This study compares the physicochemical properties of six electrolytes comprising of three salts: LiFTFSI, NaFTFSI and KFTFSI in two solvent mixtures, the binary (3EC/7EMC) and the ternary (EC/PC/3DMC). The transport properties (conductivity, viscosity) as a function of temperature and concentration were modeled using the extended Jones-Dole-Kaminsky equation, the Arrhenius model, and the Eyring theory of transition state for activated complexes. Results are discussed in terms of ionicity, solvation shell, and cross-interactions between electrolyte components. The application of the six formulated electrolytes in symmetrical activated carbon (AC)//AC supercapacitors (SCs) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic cycling with potential limitation (GCPL), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and accelerated aging. Results revealed that the geometrical flexibility of the FTFSI anion allows it to access and diffuse easily in AC whereas its counter ions (Li+, Na+ or K+) can remain trapped in porosity. However, this drawback was partially resolved by mixing LiFTFSI and KFTFSI salts in the electrolyte.  相似文献   
5.
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a new class of crystalline porous polymers comprised mainly of carbon atoms, and are versatile for the integration of heteroatoms such as B, O, and N into the skeletons. The designable structure and abundant composition render COFs useful as precursors for heteroatom-doped porous carbons for energy storage and conversion. Herein, we describe a multifunctional electrochemical catalyst obtained through pyrolysis of a bimetallic COF. The catalyst possesses hierarchical pores and abundant iron and cobalt nanoparticles embedded with standing carbon layers. By integrating these features, the catalyst exhibits excellent electrochemical catalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), with a 50 mV positive half-wave potential, a higher limited diffusion current density, and a much smaller Tafel slope than a Pt-C catalyst. Moreover, the catalyst displays superior electrochemical performance toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), with overpotentials of −0.26 V and −0.33 V in acidic and alkaline aqueous solution, respectively, at a current density of 10 mA cm−2. The overpotential in the catalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was 1.59 V at the same current density.  相似文献   
6.
Copper oxide decorated multi‐walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was prepared for determination of isoniazid (INZ) in various matrices. The electrochemical behavior of INZ was tested with the aid of Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and quantitative experiments were performed by using Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV). Morphological and structural characterization of the modified electrode was performed by utilizing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X‐Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) while electrochemical characterization was performed by using CV and Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed sensor exhibited well defined anodic peak at 0.30 V for INZ at pH 6.0 medium. Under the optimum conditions, a linear relation between INZ concentration and peak current was observed in the range of 2.0×10?7 to 5.0×10?5 M. Limit of detection was calculated as 1.0×10?8 M and repeatability and accuracy was found as 5.60 % and 91.0 % for 5.0 10?7 M INZ by using 3 successive measurement, respectively. Then, the analytic performance of the electrode developed was tested by analyzing commercial tablets, artificial human serum and urine samples. The results indicated that satisfactory recoveries was observed for all issue.  相似文献   
7.
A uniform dispersion of reactants is necessary to achieve a complete reaction involving multicomponents. In this study, we have examined the role of plasticizer in the reaction of two seemingly unlikely reactants: a highly crystalline hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and a strongly hydrogen bonded phenol formaldehyde resin. By combining information from NMR, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, we were able to determine the role of specific intermolecular interactions necessary for the plasticizer to dissolve the highly crystalline HMTA and to plasticize the phenol formaldehyde resin in this crosslinking reaction. The presence of the plasticizer increased the segmental mobility, disrupted the hydrogen bonded matrix, and freed the hydroxyl units, which further increased the solubility of the HMTA. Both the endothermic and exothermic transitions are accounted for in the calorimetric data obtained. For the first time, it is possible to obtain the effective molar ratio of each component needed to complete the crosslinking reaction efficiently. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015 , 53, 1519–1526  相似文献   
8.
Sensitivity analysis is a mathematical tool, first developed for optimization methods, which aim is to characterize a system response through the variations of its output parameters following modifications imposed on the input parameters of the system. Such an analysis may quickly become laborious when the thermal model under consideration is complex or the number of input parameters is high. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to analyse the heat exchanges in four different types of solar air collectors. When building this thermal model we show that for each collector, at quasi-steady state, the energy balance equations of the components of the collector cascade into a single first-order non-linear differential equation that is able to predict the thermal behaviour of the collector. Our heat transfer model clearly demonstrates the existence of an important dimensionless parameter, referred to as the thermal performance factor of the collector, that compares the useful thermal energy which can be extracted from the heater to the overall thermal losses of that collector for a given set of input parameters. A sensitivity analysis of our thermal model has been performed for the most significant input parameters such as the incident solar irradiation, the inlet fluid temperature, the air mass flow rate, the depth of the fluid channel, the number and nature of the transparent covers in order to measure the impact of each of these parameters on our model. An important result which can be drawn from this study is that the heat transfer model developed is robust enough to be used for thermal design studies of most known flat plate solar air heaters, but also of flat plate solar water collectors and linear solar concentrators.  相似文献   
9.
托卡马克工程试验混合堆等离子体性能的等值线图分析   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0  
本文简要叙述托卡马克工程试验混合堆等离子体概念设计的物理基础,对等离子体性能进行了等值线图(Plasma Operation Contour)分析。根据工程试验混合堆的要求,得出一组等离子体参数。  相似文献   
10.
直径对脉冲爆震发动机性能的影响   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
本文通过实验研究了脉冲爆震发动机的直径对其性能的影响.实验结果表明;当爆震室的直径增大时,爆震波压力波形相似,平均峰值压力比较接近,且比冲基本保持不变,而推力则随爆震室直径的增大而增大。实验曲线表明爆震室内的流动具有自相似性,从而为建立尺寸律提供了实验依据.本文中比冲和平均推力是利用摆动原理测量的,并与由作用在推力壁上的压力计算得出的比冲和平均推力的理论值和实验值进行了比较,结果基本吻合,说明该测量方法可行.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号