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1.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a large family of zinc-dependent endoproteases known to exert multiple regulatory roles in tumor progression. A variety of chemical classes have been explored for targeting individual MMP isoforms. In the present study, we further developed our isatin based scaffold BB0223107 capable of binding to and inactivating MMP-2 in a zinc-independent manner (Agamennone et al., 2016). Forty four new compounds were synthesized based on the modified BB0223107. All compounds were tested in enzyme inhibition assays against MMP-2, ?8 and ?13. SAR studies demonstrated that 5-het(aryl)-3-aminoindolin-2-ones (3739) were active toward MMP-2 and MMP-13. The most potent compounds 33 and 37 displayed an IC50 of 3 µM against MMP-13 and showed a negligible activity toward MMP-8; almost all new compounds were inactive toward MMP-8. Replacement of the isatin ring with a biaryl system (compound 33) did not decrease the potency against MMP-13 but reduced the selectivity. Structure-based computational studies were carried out to rationalize the inhibitory activity data. The analysis of binding geometries confirmed that all fragments occupied the S1′ site in the three enzymes while no ligand was able to bind the catalytic zinc ion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of 3-aminoindolin-2-one-based MMP inhibitors that, based on the computer modeling study, do not coordinate the zinc ion. Thus, the het(aryl)-3-aminoindolin-2-one derivatives emerge as a drug-like and promising chemotype that, along with the hetaryl variations, represents an alternative and thrifty tool for chemical space exploration aimed at MMP inhibitor design.  相似文献   
2.
Atopic dermatitis is characterized by leukocyte migration into the skin dermis and typically driven by excessive chemokine production at the site of inflammation. Conventional topical formulations such as gels, creams, and ointments are insufficient for this treatment because of low penetration of drug molecules into the targeted skin tissues. Herein, using a simple, green, sustainable strategy, we have developed novel primary zein nanoparticles embedded in curcumin (Cur) and coated with silk sericin (ZHSCs) for the topical delivery of Cur to penetrate into the dermis and exercise anti-dermatitis effects on the lesion with minimal side-effects. Transdermal delivery experiments and porcine skin fluorescence imaging indicated that ZHSCs facilitate the penetration of Cur across the epidermis layer of skin to reach deep-seated sites. Notably, ZHSCs = 1:0.25 (zein-to-silk sericin mass ratios of 1:0.25) markedly elevated the skin permeability and cumulative turnover of Cur transferred, which were provided a greater than a 3.8-fold increase relative to free Cur. The special nanoparticles of ZHS = 1:0.25 possessed the deepest localization depth and experience a transition of the particle structure and core-shell separation after penetrating into the dermis of skin. In a cell model of dermatitis induced by tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ co-stimulation, compared with free Cur, Cur-loaded ZHS nanoparticles down-regulated the generation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in keratinocytes through suppression of the nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 and hence exerted an anti-dermatitis effect. This strategy may provide new avenues and direction for the demanding issues of valid topical delivery systems.  相似文献   
3.
In the present research, field-amplified sample injection–CZE (FASI–CZE) coupled with a diode array detector was established to determine trace level sulfa antibiotic. Sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfisoxazole were selected as analytes for the experiments. The background electrolyte solution consisted of 70.0 mmol/L borax and 60.0 mmol/L boric acid (including 10% methanol, pH 9.1). The plug was 2.5 mmol/L borax, which was injected into the capillary at a pressure of 0.5 psi for 5 s. Then the sample was injected into the capillary at an injection voltage of –10 kV for 20 s. The electrophoretic separation was carried out under a voltage of +19 kV. The capillary temperature was maintained at 20˚C throughout the analysis, and six sulfonamides were completely separated within 35 min. Compared with pressure injection-CZE, the sensitivity of FASI-CZE was increased by 6.25–10.0 times, and the LODs were reduced from 0.2–0.5 to 0.02–0.05 μg/mL. The method was applied to the determination of sulfonamides in river water and particulate matter samples. The recoveries were 78.59–106.59%. The intraday and interday precisions were 2.89–7.35% and 2.77–7.09%, respectively. This provides a simpler and faster method for the analysis of sulfa antibiotic residues in environmental samples.  相似文献   
4.
Field-effect transistors (FETs) are one of the most widely-used electronic sensors for continuous monitoring and detection of contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds at low concentrations. FETs have been successfully utilized for the rapid analysis of these environmental pollutants due to their advantageous material properties like the disposability, rapid responses and simplicity. This paper presented an up-to-date overview of applied strategies with different bio-based materials in order to enhance the analytical performances of the designed sensors. Comparison and discussion were made between characteristics of recently engineered FET bio-sensors used for the detection of famous and selected pharmaceutical compounds in the literature. The recent progress in environmental research applications, comments on interesting trends, current challenge for future research in endocrine-disrupting chemicals’ (EDCs) detection using FETs biosensors were highlighted.  相似文献   
5.
Despite the development of targeted therapies in cancer, the problem of multidrug resistance (MDR) is still unsolved. Most patients with metastatic cancer die from MDR. Transmembrane efflux pumps as the main cause of MDR have been addressed by developed inhibitors, but early inhibitors of the most prominent and longest known efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were disappointing. Those inhibitors have been used without knowledge about the expression of P-gp by the treated tumor. Therefore the use of inhibitors of transmembrane efflux pumps in clinical settings is reconsidered as a promising strategy in the case of the respective efflux pump expression. We discovered novel symmetric inhibitors of the symmetric efflux pump MRP4 encoded by the ABCC4 gene. MRP4 is involved in many kinds of cancer with resistance to anticancer drugs. All compounds showed better activities than the best known MRP4 inhibitor MK571 in an MRP4-overexpressing cell line assay, and the activities could be related to the various substitution patterns of aromatic residues within the symmetric molecular framework. One of the best compounds was demonstrated to overcome the MRP4-mediated resistance in the cell line model to restore the anticancer drug sensitivity as a proof of concept.  相似文献   
6.
Doxorubicin (DOX), a recognized anticancer drug, forms stable associations with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs when properly functionalized have the ability to anchor directly in cancerous tumors where the release of the drug occurs thanks to the tumor slightly acidic pH. Herein, we study the armchair and zigzag CNTs with Stone–Wales (SW) defects to rank their ability to encapsulate DOX by determining the DOX-CNT binding free energies using the MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods implemented in AMBER16. We investigate also the chiral CNTs with haeckelite defects. Each haeckelite defect consists of a pair of square and octagonal rings. The armchair and zigzag CNT with SW defects and chiral nanotubes with haeckelite defects predict DOX-CNT interactions that depend on the length of the nanotube, the number of present defects and nitrogen doping. Chiral nanotubes having two haeckelite defects reveal a clear dependence on the nitrogen content with DOX-CNT interaction forces decreasing in the order 0N > 4N > 8N. These results contribute to a further understanding of drug-nanotube interactions and to the design of new drug delivery systems based on CNTs.  相似文献   
7.
Bryostatins are a class of naturally occurring macrocyclic lactones with a unique fast developing portfolio of clinical applications, including treatment of AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. This comprehensive account summarizes the recent progress (2014–present) in the development of bryostatins, including their total synthesis and biomedical applications. An emphasis is placed on the discussion of bryostatin 1 , the most-studied analogue to date. This review highlights the synthetic and biological challenges of bryostatins and provides an outlook on their future development.  相似文献   
8.
Capillary electrophoresis using a running buffer composed of β-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector and ethanolamine mesylate at pH 9.6 is being used to monitor the stereochemical stability of a hydrophobic drug, containing two chiral centers, in two different formulated self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) products. The separation takes place in less than 25 min. Strategies for enhancing the method reproducibility and detection sensitivity in the lower potency formulation are presented. The results demonstrating the specificity, assay precision, recovery, linearity and range achieved during the method validation experiments are presented in this paper.Presented at: CE in the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries: 7th Symposium on the Practical Applications for the Analysis of Proteins, Nucleotides and Small Molecules, Montreal, Canada, August 12–16, 2005.  相似文献   
9.
Detailed investigation of solvent‐separated fractions of petroleum vacuum residues is necessary for understanding the separation mechanism using different solvents and to prepare better feedstocks for secondary conversion processes. The efficiency of different solvents to remove polars and insolubles from vacuum residues (of two Indian crude oils) has been studied. The solvents used were n‐heptane, n‐hexane, and n‐pentane (non‐polar) and ethyl acetate (polar). Soluble fractions were characterized for hydrocarbon group type analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), average molecular weights using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and boiling point distribution using high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC). Method development for HPLC analysis involved the study of parameters such as columns, solvent polarity, detectors, model compounds study, calibration, flow, and solvent gradient programming. The study demonstrated that ultimate soluble fractions have the least content of polar structures of the kind which can cause problems, during cracking and are least prone to cracking. The HPLC, SEC, and simulated distillation (SIMDIS) methods developed and standardized are simple, accurate, and suitable for the rapid assay needed for quick compositional surveys.  相似文献   
10.
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