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1.
High-reflective multilayer laser coatings are widely used in advanced optical systems from high power laser facilities to high precision metrology systems. However, the real interface quality and defects will significantly affect absorption/scattering losses and laser induced damage thresholds of multilayer coatings. With the recent advances in the control of coating design and deposition processes, these coating properties can be significantly improved when properly engineered the interface and defects. This paper reviews the recent progress in the physics of laser damage, optical losses and environmental stability involved in multilayer reflective coatings for high power nanosecond near-infrared lasers. We first provide an overview of the layer growth mechanisms, ways to control the microstructures and reduce layer roughness, as well as the nature of defects which are critical to the optical loss and laser induced damage. Then an overview of interface engineering based on the design of coating structure and the regulation of deposition materials reveals their ability to improve the laser induced damage threshold, reduce the backscattering, and realize the desirable properties of environmental stability and exceptional multifunctionality. Moreover, we describe the recent progress in the laser damage and scattering mechanism of nodule defects and give the approaches to suppress the defect-induced damage and scattering of the multilayer laser coatings. Finally, the present challenges and limitations of high-performance multilayer laser coatings are highlighted, along with the comments on likely trends in future.  相似文献   
2.
The mechanisms involved in the formation of n‐butanol during the synthesis of butyl acrylate containing latices were investigated. The experimental results showed that neither the hydrolysis of butyl acrylate nor of the ester bond in the butyl acrylate segments of the polymer played a major role in the formation of n‐butanol, which was mainly generated from the polymer backbone, by transfer reactions to polymer chain followed by cyclization. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 5838–5846, 2007  相似文献   
3.
There is a current need for alternative coatings that can provide corrosion resistance to metals or alloy surfaces due to the environmental hazards posed by conventional coatings. Herein, we report on novel organically-modified sol–gel coatings for the protection of metal and alloy surfaces. The basic concept of chemical conversion of metal surfaces is based on deposition of a hydrophobic, nonporous sol–gel barrier layer for surface protection and corrosion prevention. The properties of these organosilica coatings can be tuned by varying the composition of precursors. The evaluation of hydrophobicity, adhesive strength, and anticorrosion properties of organically-modified sol–gel derived coatings suggests their potential utility as technologically-compatible alternatives to conventional coatings.  相似文献   
4.
Microstructured (atomized) and nanostructured (milled) Fe60Al40 powders together with their corresponding coatings synthesized by High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF) or Atmospheric Plasma Spray (APS) thermal spraying techniques have been characterized by Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The evolution of the microstructure and the atomic ordering degree in the powders and coatings are discussed at the light of the various processing conditions. The operational correlation between the parameters of the duplex morphology of coatings and the processing parameters is discussed.  相似文献   
5.
The calcium salt of mono(hydroxyethoxyethyl)phthalate [Ca(HEEP)2] was synthesized by the reaction of diethylene glycol, phthalic anhydride, and calcium acetate. Calcium‐containing poly(urethane ether)s (PUEs) were synthesized by the reaction of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) or tolylene 2,4‐diisocyanate (TDI) with a mixture of Ca(HEEP)2 and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG300 or PEG400) with di‐n‐butyltin dilaurate as a catalyst. A series of calcium‐containing PUEs of different compositions were synthesized with Ca(HEEP)2/PEG300 (or PEG400)/diisocyanate (HMDI or TDI) molar ratios of 2:2:4, 3:1:4, and 1:3:4 so that the coating properties of the PUEs could be studied. Blank PUEs without calcium‐containing ionic diols were also prepared by the reaction of PEG300 or PEG400 with HMDI or TDI. The PUEs were well characterized by Fourier transform infrared, 1H and 13C NMR, solid‐state cross‐polarity/magic‐angle‐spinning 13C NMR, viscosity, solubility, and X‐ray diffraction studies. The thermal properties of the polymers were also studied with thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The PUEs were applied as top coats on acrylic‐coated leather, and their physicomechanical properties were also studied. The coating properties of PUEs, such as the tensile strength, elongation at break, tear strength, water vapor permeability, flexing endurance, cold crack resistance, abrasion resistance, color fastness, and adhesive strength, were better than the standard values. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 41: 2865–2878, 2003  相似文献   
6.
Pulsed laser deposition with a Nd:YAG laser was used to grow thin films from a pre-synthesized Ti3SiC2 MAX-phase formulated ablation target on oxidized Si(1 0 0) and MgO(1 0 0) substrates. The depositions were carried out in a substrate temperature range from 300 to 900 K, and the pressure in the deposition chamber ranged from vacuum (10−5 Pa) to 0.05 Pa Argon background pressure. The properties of the films have been investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry for film thickness and stoichiometric composition and X-ray diffraction for the crystallinity of the films. The silicon content of the films varied with the energy density of the laser beam. To suppress especially the silicon re-sputtering from the substrate, the energy of the incoming particles must be below a threshold of 20 eV. Therefore, the energy density of the laser beam must not be too high. At constant deposition energy density the film thickness depends strongly on the background pressure. The X-ray diffraction measurements show patterns that are typical of amorphous films, i.e. no Ti3SiC2 related reflections were found. Only a very weak TiC(2 0 0) reflection was seen, indicating the presence of a small amount of crystalline TiC.  相似文献   
7.
Ni + Mo + Si composite coatings were prepared by co-deposition of nickel with molybdenum and silicon powders from a nickel solution in which Mo and Si particles were suspended by stirring. The layers have been deposited on a carbon steel substrate (St3S) under galvanostatic conditions. The content of Si in deposited layers was about 2-5 wt.% depending on deposition current density and the value of electric charge. For comparison Ni + Mo composite coatings were obtained under analogous current conditions. Composite coatings of enhanced Si content (15 wt.%) were deposited from an electrolyte in which 40 g/dm3 of Si covered with electroless plated nickel was dispersed. Deposition current density was equal 0.1 A/cm2 and the value of electric charge Q = 500 C/cm2. The thickness of the coatings was about 100-300 μm depending on their kind, electric charge and the deposition current density. Surface and cross-section morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). All deposited coatings are characterized by great, developed surface area. No internal stresses causing their cracking were observed. Chemical composition of the layers was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) method and quantitative X-ray analysis (QXRD). It was stated, that the content of molybdenum and silicon in Ni + Mo + Si coatings depends on deposition current density and the amount of the powder in bath. The results of structural investigation of the obtained layers by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method show, that they consist in crystalline Mo or Mo and Si phases built into Ni matrix. Moreover, Ni + Mo + Si composite coatings were modified by thermal treatment. It has been found that the thermal treatment of Ni + Mo + Si composite coatings caused that the new phases (NiSi, Mo2Ni3Si and Ni6Mo6C1.06) were obtained.  相似文献   
8.
The role of water‐soluble corrosion products on galvanized wires was examined. The samples used were industrial hot‐dip galvanized wires, which were exposed to the open air under all weather conditions for a relatively short time (6 and 12 months), in an urban environment close to the sea. The samples were studied by different methods, i.e. scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (OM). Several phases were detected because of the galvanization procedure and the steel substrate. Furthermore, phases which were formed as a result of the reaction of zinc with the atmosphere were also detected. These were oxides like ZnO, carbonates like ZnCO3 and hydrated Zn and Fe sulfates. Their presence influences the corrosion resistance of the wires, which finally, strongly depends on the solubility of the wires in water. The SO42? compounds especially are very soluble and consequently are easily removed from the coating surface, leading to its degradation by the formation of cavities. In any case, their presence, even after a short period of exposure, implies that the coating is highly affected by the atmosphere of the modern city. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
In this work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear polarization are used in determining porosity of zinc phosphates, and of nickel and manganese modified zinc phosphates on electrogalvanized steel. The porosity of the phosphate layers ranges from 0.1% for the manganese-modified hopeite to 8% for hopeite, using the linear polarization and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The porosity values measured using the two techniques were in agreement. All impedance spectra of coated samples showed two steps, with two capacitive arcs and an inductive looping.  相似文献   
10.
利用光热偏转技术实施光学薄膜弱吸收的多波长测量   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
胡文涛  范正修 《光学学报》1993,13(5):75-477
介绍了光热表面形变光束偏转技术用于测量光学薄膜弱吸收的基本原理,简述多波长吸收测量装置的建立和测试过程,最后给出简单的测量实例.  相似文献   
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