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1.
Riociguat is novel antihypertensive drug for treatment of pulmonary hypertension. As such, it is still being tested in many clinical and pharmacokinetic trials. Existing methods that determine serum riociguat and desmethylriociguat (DMR) are based solely on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Therefore, we present a novel capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry method (CE-MS) for their determination in human serum as alternative method for ongoing trials. Complete resolution of both analytes was achieved by means of pH optimization of ammonium formate background electrolytes that are fully compatible with ESI/MS detection. Simple liquid-liquid extraction was used as sample pretreatment. The calibration dependence of the method was linear (in the range of 10–1000 ng/mL), with adequate accuracy (90.1–114.9%) and precision (13.4%). LOD and LOQ were arbitrarily set at 10 ng/mL for both analytes. Clinical applicability was validated using serum samples from patients treated with riociguat in pharmacokinetic study and the results corresponded with reference HPLC-MS/MS values. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be sensitive and selective tool for the analysis of riociguat and DMR.  相似文献   
2.
In the present research, field-amplified sample injection–CZE (FASI–CZE) coupled with a diode array detector was established to determine trace level sulfa antibiotic. Sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfisoxazole were selected as analytes for the experiments. The background electrolyte solution consisted of 70.0 mmol/L borax and 60.0 mmol/L boric acid (including 10% methanol, pH 9.1). The plug was 2.5 mmol/L borax, which was injected into the capillary at a pressure of 0.5 psi for 5 s. Then the sample was injected into the capillary at an injection voltage of –10 kV for 20 s. The electrophoretic separation was carried out under a voltage of +19 kV. The capillary temperature was maintained at 20˚C throughout the analysis, and six sulfonamides were completely separated within 35 min. Compared with pressure injection-CZE, the sensitivity of FASI-CZE was increased by 6.25–10.0 times, and the LODs were reduced from 0.2–0.5 to 0.02–0.05 μg/mL. The method was applied to the determination of sulfonamides in river water and particulate matter samples. The recoveries were 78.59–106.59%. The intraday and interday precisions were 2.89–7.35% and 2.77–7.09%, respectively. This provides a simpler and faster method for the analysis of sulfa antibiotic residues in environmental samples.  相似文献   
3.
Luca Cimbaro 《哲学杂志》2019,99(12):1499-1514
A unified theory captures both brittle and ductile fracture. The fracture toughness is proportional to the applied stress squared and the length of the crack. For purely brittle solids, this criterion is equivalent to Griffith's theory. In other cases, it provides a theoretical basis for the Irwin-Orowan formula. For purely ductile solids, the theory makes direct contact with the Bilby-Cottrell-Swinden model. The toughness is highest in ductile materials because the shielding dislocations in the plastic zone provide additional resistance to crack growth. This resistance is the force opposing dislocation motion, and the Peach-Koehler force overcomes it. A dislocation-free zone separates the plastic zone from and the tip of the crack. The dislocation-free zone is finite because molecular forces responsible for the cohesion of the surfaces near the crack tip are not negligible. At the point of crack growth, the length of the dislocation-free zone is constant and the shielding dislocations advance in concert. As in Griffith's theory, the crack is in unstable equilibrium. The theory shows that a dimensionless variable controls the elastoplastic behaviour. A relationship for the size of the dislocation-free zone is derived in terms of the macroscopic and microscopic parameters that govern the fracture.  相似文献   
4.
Triazines are widely used in agriculture around the world as selective pre‐ and post‐emergence herbicides for the control of broad leaf and grassy weeds. With high toxicity and persistence, triazines can contaminate the environment and crops, so the development of rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of different triazines is necessary. Capillary electrophoresis comprises a group of techniques used to separate chemical mixtures. Analytical separation is based on different electrophoretic mobilities. This review focuses on the analysis of triazine herbicides with different modes of capillary electrophoresis, including capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography and nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Determinations of triazines in various matrices such as surface water, groundwater, vegetables, soil and grains are emphasized. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
5.
Mass spectrometry (MS) driven metabolomics is a frequently used tool in various areas of life sciences; however, the analysis of polar metabolites is less commonly included. In general, metabolomic analyses lead to the detection of the total amount of all covered metabolites. This is currently a major limitation with respect to metabolites showing high turnover rates, but no changes in their concentration. Such metabolites and pathways could be crucial metabolic nodes (e.g., potential drug targets in cancer metabolism). A stable-isotope tracing capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE-MS) metabolomic approach was developed to cover both polar metabolites and isotopologues in a non-targeted way. An in-house developed software enables high throughput processing of complex multidimensional data. The practicability is demonstrated analyzing [U-13C]-glucose exposed prostate cancer and non-cancer cells. This CE-MS-driven analytical strategy complements polar metabolite profiles through isotopologue labeling patterns, thereby improving not only the metabolomic coverage, but also the understanding of metabolism.  相似文献   
6.
乔洋  张盛  刘少伟  王猛 《实验力学》2020,(2):287-299
裂纹前端的断裂过程区是引起岩石非线性断裂及尺寸效应的主要原因。利用数字图像相关技术对砂岩开展了三点弯曲梁实验,获得观测区域高精度的全场位移和应变数据,根据断裂韧带区域水平位移和水平应变的分布特征,结合裂尖岩石颗粒变化的微观分析,提出采用裂纹尖端水平位移波动性和水平应变突变性所得到的波动系数和水平应变突变值,确定断裂过程区形状和临界尺寸的方法。结果表明:砂岩断裂过程区的形状为不规则的狭长带状区域,断裂过程区的临界长度为11~13mm,临界宽度为1.58~2.36mm。断裂过程区区域内形变在趋向裂尖时呈指数增加,但其单位区域内的形变增量呈波动状态。该方法能够更加准确判断岩石断裂过程区的范围,有助于分析岩石的非线性断裂特性。  相似文献   
7.
Technical advances in the development of field-deployable capillary and microchip electrophoretic instruments and reports of their deployment between 2013 and 2017 were reviewed. Strategies and considerations in the design of the injection, separation and detection hardware, chemistry and associated infrastructure were discussed from an in-field perspective, with portability, robustness and automation/“ease of use” featuring as key requirements. Integration of functionality is important for adequate in-field performance. Progress was made towards the use of multiple channel devices for increased throughput and/or resolving power, mixing devices for on-line/in-line sample derivatization, battery operation and temperature control. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches described in the literature are discussed from the perspective of in-field operation. An overview of the applications of the field electrophoretic instruments is provided, including environmental science and planetary investigation.  相似文献   
8.
9.
Summary A system for capillary electrophoresis combined with enzymatic assay has been evaluated for the two enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Instrumentation included a post-column reactor coupled to the separation capillary by a liquid junction. A technique for generating a substrate solution flow into the reactor by utilizing two high voltage supplies is proposed. This method offers a high degree of freedom in optimizing the separation and enzymatic reaction conditions individually. Possibilities for improving the enzymatic assay sensitivity were also examined.  相似文献   
10.
Summary The baseline separation of 23 dansylated amino acids (including 3 didansylated species) is reported. Lowering of the analysis temperature and fine control of the surfactant concentration were essential in obtaining this result. Calibration graphs with good linearity were obtained.  相似文献   
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