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1.
Densities and specific heat capacities of ternary aqueous systems containing dipeptides (glycyl-glycine or L--alanyl-L--alanine) and nucleic acid bases (cytosine or thymine) or their alkyl derivatives (1,3-diethylthymine or caffeine) were determined at 25°C by flow calorimetry and flow densimetry. The partial molar volumes and heat capacities of transfer at infinite dilution of the different nucleic acid bases from water to water+dipeptide solutions were obtained therefrom. Except for the case of the transfer of cytosine to aqueous glycyl-glycine solutions where a small positive dependence of the transfer quantities was observed with the dipeptide concentration, the values of the heat capacities of transfer were in general low, positive or negative, depending on the compensation of hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions between the dipeptide and the base. The volumes of transfer of most of the bases are very small, within the limit of the experimental error.  相似文献   
2.
We introduce a new approach to crystal‐packing analysis, based on the study of mutual recognition modes of entire molecules or of molecular moieties, rather than a search for selected atom–atom contacts, and on the study of crystal energy landscapes over many computer‐generated polymorphs, rather than a quest for the one most stable crystal structure. The computational tools for this task are a polymorph generator and the PIXEL density sums method for the calculation of intermolecular energies. From this perspective, the molecular recognition, crystal packing, and solid‐state phase behavior of caffeine and several methylxanthines (purine‐2,6‐diones) have been analyzed. Many possible crystal structures for anhydrous caffeine have been generated by computer simulation, and the most stable among them is a thermodynamic, ordered equivalent of the disordered phase, revealed by powder X‐ray crystallography. Molecular recognition energies between two caffeine molecules or between caffeine and water have been calculated, and the results reveal the largely predominant mode to be the stacking of parallel caffeine molecules, an intermediately favorable caffeine–water interaction, and many other equivalent energy minima for lateral interactions of much less stabilization power. This last indetermination helps to explain why caffeine does not crystallize easily into an ordered anhydrous structure. In contrast, the mono‐ and dimethylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine, and the 1,7‐isomer, for which we present a single‐crystal X‐ray study and a lattice energy landscape) do crystallize in anhydrous form thanks to the formation of lateral hydrogen bonds.  相似文献   
3.
以快速定量滤纸为基质 ,用KI NaAc为重原子微扰剂建立了测定痕量咖啡因的滤纸基质室温光(PS RTP)分析法。并用于茶叶中咖啡因的测定及其在人体内的药代动力学研究。实验表明 :PS RTP法用于茶叶中咖啡因的测定准确、灵敏。受试者饮茶后 1~ 2h尿样中咖啡因排泄达高峰 ,2 4h后基本排泄完毕。咖啡因的尿排泄量占总摄取量的 64 .2 5 %。  相似文献   
4.
Roasting of Coffea arabica L. seeds gives rise to chemical reactions that produce more than 800 compounds, some being responsible for the desired organoleptic properties for which the beverage called “coffee” is known. In the industry, the “roasting profile,” that is, the times and temperatures applied, is key to influence the composition of roasted coffee beans and the flavour of the beverage made from them. The impact of roasting on the chemical composition of coffee has been the subject of numerous studies, including by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. However, the roasting equipment and profiles applied in these studies are often far from real industrial conditions. In this work, the effects of two critical technological parameters of the roasting process, namely, the “development time” (the period of time after the “first crack,” a characteristic noise due to seed disruption) and the final roasting temperature on coffee extracts, were investigated. Seeds were roasted at pilot scale according to 13 industrial roasting profiles and extracted in D2O. The extracts were analysed by 1H NMR experiments. The NMR spectra were compared using (a) quantitative analysis of main signals by successive orders of magnitude and (b) chemometric tools (principal component analysis, partial least squares and sparse-orthogonal partial least squares analysis). This allowed to identify compounds, which may serve as markers of roasting and showed that changes in chemical composition can be detected even for slight change in final temperature (~1°C) or in total roasting time (~25 s).  相似文献   
5.
We developed novel stability‐indicating HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of 14 impurities in excedrin tablet, a formulation with a combination of acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine. In addition, a new impurity that was generated through degradation of aspirin at high temperatures during the accelerated stability conditions was positively identified and confirmed, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry technique. The HPLC method was optimized using the Inertsustain C18, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm column, employing simple gradient method. Forced degradation studies were performed under acidic, basic, oxidative and thermal conditions to prove the scope and stability‐indicating the nature of the method. The optimized method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The HPLC method showed linearity from LOQ concentration to 21 μg mL?1. Precision and intermediate precision values were <5% RSD. The validated HPLC method is currently applied for the routine testing of excedrin tablet formulations in quality control laboratories.  相似文献   
6.
The crystal structure of K[PtCl3(caffeine)] was determined. The coordination geometry around platinum is square-planar formed by N9 of the caffeine ligand and three Cl? ions. The bond lengths and angles of K[PtCl3(caffeine)] were compared with those reported for [PtCl3(caffeine)]? and K[PtCl3(theobromine)]. At the level of the statistical significance of the data we have compared, no differences in the bond distances and angles for any of these compounds were noticed. Weak interactions between K+ and Cl? are responsible for the formation of 1-D polymeric chains in the crystal structure of the complex. The interactions of K[PtCl3(caffeine)] with inosine (Ino) and guanosine-5′-monophosphate (5′-GMP) were studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy at 295 K in D2O in a molar ratio of 1 : 1. The results indicate formation of the reaction product [PtCl3(Nu)] (Nu=Ino or 5′-GMP) with the release of caffeine from the coordination sphere of the starting complex. The higher stability of the bond between the Pt(II) ion and Ino or 5′-GMP compared to the stability of the platinum–caffeine bond is confirmed by density functional theory calculations (B3LYP/LANL2DZp) using as models 9-methylhypoxanthine and 9-methylguanine.  相似文献   
7.
A novel ecofriendly, cost and time saving high‐performance thin‐layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of metoclopramide, ergotamine, caffeine, and paracetamol in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The separation was carried out on silica gel plates, using ethyl acetate:ethanol:ammonia (9:1:0.1, v/v/v) as a developing system. Ultraviolet detection was carried out at 272 nm. The resulting retention times were 0.15, 0.36, 0.49, and 0.74 min for metoclopramide, ergotamine, caffeine, and paracetamol, respectively. The greenness profile assessment was achieved to the proposed method to evaluate its greenness characters to the environment with acceptable results. Validation parameters were checked according to International Conference of Harmonization guidelines to achieve the international requirements for quality control analysis of the proposed drugs.  相似文献   
8.
Nine biologically active theophylline derivatives were investigated using quantum chemical methods (density functional theory level). All calculations were performed at B3LYP/6‐31G** level of theory. The electrostatic potential charges, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap, dipole moment, vibration frequencies, and electronic spectra were calculated. Log P was determined by Ghose‐Crippen method. All of the compounds under study are polar and negatively charged, which is necessary for their interaction with the receptors/enzymes. Majority of the compounds are lipophilic and they can easily diffuse through the cell membrane. The observed differences between the calculated and the experimental vibration frequencies in the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra are established to be mainly in NH and OH bands, due to hydrogen bonds formation. The discrepancies between theoretical and experimental electronic spectra may be due to vibration effects and H‐bonding with the solvent molecules. The obtained results show that this type of spectrum is formed mainly by the xanthine fragment of the molecule, especially in the fingerprint region. All calculated properties could be useful for future qualitative‐structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
9.
Anion…π interactions are newly recognized weak supramolecular forces which are relevant to many types of electron‐deficient aromatic substrates. Being less competitive with respect to conventional hydrogen bonding, anion…π interactions are only rarely considered as a crystal‐structure‐defining factor. Their significance dramatically increases for polyoxometalate (POM) species, which offer extended oxide surfaces for maintaining dense aromatic/inorganic stacks. The structures of tetrakis(caffeinium) μ12‐silicato‐tetracosa‐μ2‐oxido‐dodecaoxidododecatungsten trihydrate, (C8H11N4O2)4[SiW12O40]·3H2O, (1), and tris(theobrominium) μ12‐phosphato‐tetracosa‐μ2‐oxido‐dodecaoxidododecatungsten ethanol sesquisolvate, (C7H9N4O2)3[PW12O40]·1.5C2H5OH, (2), support the utility of anion…π interactions as a special kind of supramolecular synthon controlling the structures of ionic lattices. Both caffeinium [(HCaf)+ in (1)] and theobrominium cations [(HTbr)+ in (2)] reveal double stacking patterns at both axial sides of the aromatic frameworks, leading to the generation of anion…π…anion bridges. The latter provide the rare face‐to‐face linkage of the anions. In (1), every square face of the metal–oxide cuboctahedra accepts the interaction and the above bridges yield flat square nets, i.e. {(HCaf+)2[SiW12O40]4?}n. Two additional cations afford single stacks only and they terminate the connectivity. Salt (2) retains a two‐dimensional (2D) motif of square nets, with anion…π…anion bridges involving two of the three (HTbr)+ cations. The remaining cations complete a fivefold anion…π environment of [PW12O40]3?, acting as terminal groups. This single anion…π interaction is influenced by the specific pairing of (HTbr)+ cations by double amide‐to‐amide hydrogen bonding. Nevertheless, invariable 2D patterns in (1) and (2) suggest the dominant role of anion…π interactions as the structure‐governing factor, which is applicable to the construction of noncovalent linkages involving Keggin‐type oxometalates.  相似文献   
10.
A modified Stroop color-word task has been developed to activate the prefrontal cortex as a cognitive task and it has been tried to clarify whether change in the cerebral hemodynamics after ingesting caffeine is associated with change in performance on the modified Stroop task in young male subjects. In this modified task, subjects were instructed to quickly select a colored disk on a computer screen in response to an instruction, i.e. “color” or “meaning”, presented simultaneously with one color word at each trial. The color of the presented color word was discordant with the meaning of the word. Relative changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the prefrontal association cortex were measured noninvasively using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that caffeine ingestion decreased blood volume and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the brain during the modified Stroop task, and that the individual change in the latter was related to change in performance on the task following caffeine ingestion.  相似文献   
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