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1.
The coordination chemistry of f-block elements (lanthanide and actinide) in molten salts has become a resounding topic in view of its great importance to the research and development (R&D) of molten salt reactors and pyroprocessing. In this Review article, a general overview of the coordination chemistry of f-block elements in molten salts is provided including past achievements and recent advances. Particular emphases are placed on the oxidation state, speciation, and solution structure of f-block metal ions in molten salts, as well as their relationships with the salt composition. Furthermore, this review briefly discusses the spectroscopic and theoretical methods that complement each other in revealing the coordination properties.  相似文献   
2.
Landfill gas, cryotrapped on a loop fashioned from a length of a capillary gas chromatography (GC) column, was examined for volatile organometallic compounds (VOMCs) and for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by using GC–mass spectrometry (MS). A large number of organic components were present and many were identified, but the only VOMCs present in high enough concentrations to be detected were trimethylstibine and tetramethyltin. The use of inductively coupled plasma (ICP)‐MS as an element‐specific detector allowed the identification of a number of other organometallic species in the landfill gas, including trimethylarsine and trimethylbismuth, and, for the first time, butyltrimethyltin and dibutyldimethyltin. The presence of molybdenum hexacarbonyl was confirmed. Gas from a large‐scale compost heap and from compost incubated in the laboratory contained iodomethane but no common VOMCs (GC–ICP‐MS). Only VOCs were present in forest air (GC–MS). Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
基于化学热力学平衡分析方法,计算分析了燃煤烟气中重金属As、Se、Pb的形态分布规律,研究了S、Cl等元素对As、Se、Pb的形态分布规律的影响。结果表明,氧化性气氛下,As以As2O5、As4O6、AsO等氧化物的形式存在;Se主要以SeO2形式存在;Pb在1000 K以下主要是固态PbSO4,1200 K以上为气态PbO。还原性气氛下,As在较低温度时为固态As2S2,900-1400 K以As2、AsS、AsN气体共存,2000 K以上全部转化为气态AsO。Se在1100 K以下主要以气态H2Se存在,1100 K开始生成SeS和Se2气体,1800 K时主要是气态Se和少量气态SeO;Pb在中低温时主要是PbS,1800 K以上气态Pb为主要存在形态。S在还原性气氛下增大了AsS(g)、PbS(g)、SeS(g)的比例,氧化性气氛下对As、Se、Pb形态分布基本无影响;Cl无论在氧化还是还原气氛下对As、Se影响均较小,但对Pb的形态分布影响较大。  相似文献   
4.
We calculated the intake of each chemical species of dietary arsenic by typical Japanese, and determined urinary and blood levels of each chemical species of arsenic. The mean total arsenic intake by 35 volunteers was 195±235 (15.8-1039) μg As day?1, composed of 76% trimethylated arsenic (TMA), 17.3% inorganic arsenic (Asi), 5.8% dimethylated arsenic (DMA), and 0.8% monomethylated arsenic (MA): the intake of TMA was the largest of all the measured species. Intake of Asi characteristically and invariably occurred in each meal. Of the intake of Asi, 45-75% was methylated in vivo to form MA and DMA, and excreted in these forms into urine. The mean measured urinary total arsenic level in 56 healthy volunteers was 129±92.0 μg As dm?3, composed of 64.6% TMA, 26.7% DMA, 6.7% Asi and 2.2% MA. The mean blood total arsenic level in the 56 volunteers was 0.73±0.57 μg dl?1, composed of 73% TMA, 14% DMA and 9.6% Asi. The urinary TMA levels proved to be significantly correlated with the whole-blood TMA levels (r = 0.376; P<0.01).  相似文献   
5.
The relationship between the four components, (1) fluorescence intensity, (2) arsenic concentration, (3) pH and (4) total dissolved solids, (TDS) measured in well waters from areas in Taiwan where blackfoot disease (BFD) is endemic was studied, as well as the relationships between the four degrees of BFD and each of the above four symptomatic components, in order to evaluate the etiological factors of BFD more progressively. The following 95% confidence intervals were obtained in well water samples (n = 1189): fluorescence intensity, 26.837–32.570; arsenic concentration, 0.103–0.127 mg dm?3; pH, 7.466–7.519; and TDS 733.063–801.647 mg dm?3. Fluorescence intensities of the four degrees of BFD were not all the same (F = 64.54, P < 0.001), and nor were arsenic concentrations (F = 72.03, P < 0.001), pH values (F = 7.30, P < 0.001), nor TDS values (F = 10.76, P < 0.001). In addition, multiple comparisons indicate that the higher the epidemical degree, the higher the fluorescence intensities, arsenic concentrations and pH values become; however, such a relationship is not found for TDS values. Moreover, the fluorescence intensities have positive linear correlations with arsenic concentrations (r = 0.49, P < 0.001), pH (r = 0.25, P < 0.001), and TDS (r = 0.18, P < 0.001), as do the arsenic concentrations with pH (r = 0.22, P < 0.001). Of the four epidemical degree groups, pairs are not significantly different from one another in correlation coefficients between fluorescence intensity and arsenic concentration, which implies a steady relationship between fluorescent compounds and arsenic. We conclude that fluorescent compounds in well water, as possible etiological factors of BFD, are closely related to arsenic along with pH and TDS values in the areas where BFD is endemic. In addition, we infer that a complex is formed by fluorescent compounds, arsenic and other metals.  相似文献   
6.
The toxicity of inorganic trivalent arsenic for living organisms is reduced by in vivo methylation of the element. In man, this biotransformation leads to the synthesis of monomethylarsonic (MMA) and dimethylarsinic (DMA) acids, which are efficiently eliminated in urine along with the unchanged form (Asi). In order to document the methylation process in humans, the kinetics of Asi, MMA and DMA elimination were studied in volunteers given a single dose of one of these three arsenicals or repeated doses of Asi. The arsenic methylation efficiency was also assessed in subjects acutely intoxicated with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) and in patients with liver diseases. Several observations in humans can be explained by the properties of the enzymic systems involved in the methylation process which we have characterized in vitro and in vivo in rats as follows: (1) production of Asi metabolites is catalyzed by an enzymic system whose activity is highest in liver cytosol; (2) different enzymic activities, using the same methyl group donor (S-adenosylmethionine), lead to the production of mono- and di-methylated derivatives which are excreted in urine as MMA and DMA; (3) dimethylating activity is highly sensitive to inhibition by excess of inorganic arsenic; (4) reduced glutathione concentration in liver moderates the arsenic methylation process through several mechanisms, e.g. stimulation of the first methylation reaction leading to MMA, facilitation of Asi uptake by hepatocytes, stimulation of the biliary excretion of the element, reduction of pentavalent forms before methylation, and protection of a reducing environment in the cells necessary to maintain the activity of the enzymic systems.  相似文献   
7.
It is thought that the extensive industrial use of arsenic, gallium and indium, which have applications as the materials for III–V semiconductors, will increase human exposure to these compounds in the near future. We have undertaken the development of new biological indicators for assessing exposure to these elements. Element-specific alterations in protein synthesis patterns were expected to occur following exposure to arsenic compounds. We examined alterations in protein synthesis in primary cultures of rat kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells by sodium arsenite, gallium chloride and indium chloride, utilizing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. After incubation with the chemicals for 20 h, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with [35S]methionine. A protein with a molecular weight (Mr) of 30 000 was markedly induced on exposure to 10 μM arsenite or 300 μM gallium chloride, and synthesis of proteins with Mr values of 85 000, 71 000, 65 000, 51 000, 38 000 and 28 000 were also increased by exposure to arsenite and gallium chloride. No significant changes were observed upon exposure to indium. Some of these increased proteins could be heat-shock proteins.  相似文献   
8.
Polyphysa peniculus was grown in artificial seawater in the presence of arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinic acid. The separation and identification of some of the arsenic species produced in the cells as well as in the growth medium were achieved by using hydride generation–gas chromatography–atomic absorption spectrometry methodology. Arsenite and dimethylarsinate were detected following incubation with arsenate. When the alga was treated with arsenite, dimethylarsinate was the major metabolite in the cells and in the growth medium; trace amounts of monomethylarsonate were also detected in the cells. With monomethylarsonate as a substrate, the metabolite is dimethylarsinate. Polyphysa peniculus did not metabolize dimethylarsinic acid when it was used as a substrate. Significant amounts of more complex arsenic species, such as arsenosungars, were not observed in the cells or medium on the evidence of flow injection–microwave digestion–hydride generation–atomic absorption spectrometry methodology. Transfer of the exposed cells to fresh medium caused release of most cell–associated arsenicals to the surrounding environment.  相似文献   
9.
The acute influences of arsenic compounds on the metabolism of porphyrins and heme in various organs of rats after oral or intratracheal administration of disodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) were examined and compared. For the oral administration experiments, 21 or 84 mg of Na2HAsO4, or 2 or 4 g of GaAs, per cm3 saline per kg body weight of each animal was administered to Jcl: Wistar male rats and the organs were removed after exsanguination from the vein of the right axilla under anesthesia with ether, 16 h after administration. In the case of intratracheal administration, rats given 8.2 or 16.4 mg of Na2HAsO4, or 0.2 or 0.4 g GaAs per cm3 saline per kg body weight were examined under the same experimental conditions as for the administration route. Increase in the body weight of rats was suppressed after intratracheal administration of the two arsenic compounds. In these rats the hematocrit value increased significantly. These changes were not shown by the orally administered rats. Elevation in δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALA-S, EC 2.3.1.37) activity in erythroblasts by Na2HAsO4 was much higher after intratracheal administration than after oral administration. Suppression in the activities of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D, EC 4.2.1.24) and porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D, EC 4.3.1.8) in peripheral erythrocytes by Na2HAsO4 and GaAs were stronger by intratracheal administration than by the oral route. Influences of GaAs on the activity of PBG-D in rat liver were shown to be more effective by oral administration than by the intratracheal route. Oral administration of Na2HAsO4 and GaAs had a stronger suppression effect on the activities of ALA-D and PBG-D in rat kidney. It seems from these results that the different extents of the influence of arsenic compounds might depend on the routes of intake.  相似文献   
10.
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