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1.
There are marine cytotoxic bromotriterpenoids, named the thyrsiferol family that are structurally characterized by some tetrahydropyran (THP) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) rings. The thyrsiferol family belongs to natural products that are often difficult to determine their stereostructures even by the current, highly advanced spectroscopic methods, especially in acyclic systems including stereogenic tetrasubstituted carbon centers. In such cases, it is effective to predict and synthesize the possible stereostructures. Herein, to elucidate ambiguous stereostructures and unassigned absolute configurations of aplysiol B, laurenmariannol, and saiyacenol A, members of the thyrsiferol family, we carried out their asymmetric chemical syntheses featuring 6-exo and 5-exo oxacyclizations of epoxy alcohol precursors and 6-endo bromoetherification of a bishomoallylic alcohol. In this paper, we report total assignments of their stereostructures through their asymmetric chemical syntheses and also their preliminary cytotoxic activities against some tumor cells. These results could not have been achieved without depending on asymmetric total synthesis.  相似文献   
2.
Natural products with a variety of pharmacological effects are important sources for commercial drugs, and it is very crucial to develop effective techniques to selectively extract and isolate bioactive natural components from the plants against the background of sustainable development. Ionic liquids (ILs) are a kind of designable material with unique physicochemical properties, including good thermal stability, negligible vapor pressure, good solvation ability, etc. ILs have already been used in pharmaceuticals for extraction, purification, drug delivery, etc. It has been reported that multi-interactions, like hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, play important roles in the extraction of bioactive components from the plants. In this review, recent progress in the understanding of scientific essence of hydrogen bonding, the special interaction, in ILs was summarized. The extraction of various natural products, one important area in pharmaceutical, by conventional and functional ILs as well as the specific roles of multi-interactions in this process were also reviewed. Moreover, problems existing in bioactive compound extraction by ILs and the future developing trends of this area are given, which might be helpful for scientists, especially beginners, in this field.  相似文献   
3.
Formation of carboxylic acids at a constant rate can be easily explained. It seems to result from the formation and decomposition of α,γ-keto-hydroperoxides. Formal kinetics based on formation and decomposition of these structural units is in agreement with the experimental findings. The activation energy deduced from the calculations is negligible, in agreement with the experimental data showing the constant rate to be practically temperature independent. Comparison of the acids with the hydroperoxides and ketones formed initially shows that the rate of oxygen addition to alkyl radicals is significantly smaller than in low molecular mass liquids. The same conclusion is reached on comparing directly the acids formed on decomposition of α,γ-keto-hydroperoxides in polyethylene melt and in hexadecane. The rate of oxygen addition in polyethylene melt is closer to 2 × 105 than to 6 × 105 (s−1) that is valid in hexadecane.It is possible to attribute the relatively small amount of aldehydes that might be formed at a constant rate to different reactions of alkoxy radicals that are not in a cage with other radicals. These alkoxy radicals result from the addition of peroxy radicals to unsaturated bonds. This addition is followed mainly by epoxide formation and simultaneous release of an alkoxy radical.  相似文献   
4.
This paper investigates the behavior of numerical schemes for nonlinear conservation laws with source terms. We concentrate on two significant examples: relaxation approximations and genuinely nonhomogeneous scalar laws. The main tool in our analysis is the extensive use of weak limits and nonconservative products which allow us to describe accurately the operations achieved in practice when using Riemann-based numerical schemes. Some illustrative and relevant computational results are provided.

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5.
We study a model of a queueing system with two complementary products/services. In our model, there is one M/M/1 system and another facility that provides instantaneous service. The two services are complementary and the customer has no benefit from obtaining just one of them. We investigate the model under various price structures and ownership assumptions.AMS subject classification: 90B22, 91A10The authors are equal in their contribution to this paper. This paper is submitted by the first author to the Tokyo Institute of Technology as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in the Department of Value and Decision Sciences, and the order of names was chosen in compliance with program conditions. This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (grant No. 237/02).  相似文献   
6.
The first syntheses of newly isolated members of the Preussomerin family, Preussomerins K and L, are reported. Key steps include the functionalisation of a 2-arylacetal anion, one-pot Friedel-Crafts cyclisation-deprotection and reductive opening of epoxides.  相似文献   
7.
Stemmosides C and D, two novel pregnane glycosides characterized by an unusual C-17 side chain were isolated from the pericarps of Solenostemma argel. In addition, stemmoside D displays an uncommon 14β proton configuration, apparently being the first pregnane isolated from plants known to have a 15 keto, cis CD ring junction. Their structures have been established by ESIMS and NMR experiments. The relative configuration of the molecules was determined using a strategy based on the simulation of 1H, 13C, and J coupling NMR parameters. DFT calculations of 1H and 13C chemical shifts, and of the 1H homonuclear spin–spin coupling constants were performed with the mPW1PW91 functional using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set on the fully optimized geometries of all the possible stereoisomers.  相似文献   
8.
We construct the polynomial quantization on the space G/H where G=SL(n,R),H=GL(n–1,R). It is a variant of quantization in the spirit of Berezin. In our case covariant and contravariant symbols are polynomials on G/H. We introduce a multiplication of covariant symbols, establish the correspondence principle, study transformations of symbols (the Berezin transform) and of operators. We write a full asymptotic decomposition of the Berezin transform.  相似文献   
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