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1.
Favipiravir is a potential antiviral medication that has been recently licensed for Covid-19 treatment. In this work, a gadolinium-based magnetic ionic liquid was prepared and used as an extractant in dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) of favipiravir in human plasma. The high enriching ability of DLLME allowed the determination of favipiravir in real samples using HPLC/UV with sufficient sensitivity. The effects of several variables on extraction efficiency were investigated, including type of extractant, amount of extractant, type of disperser and disperser volume. The maximum enrichment was attained using 50 mg of the Gd-magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) and 150 μl of tetrahydrofuran. The Gd-based MIL could form a supramolecular assembly in the presence of tetrahydrofuran, which enhanced the extraction efficiency of favipiravir. The developed method was validated according to US Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The coefficient of determination was 0.9999, for a linear concentration range of 25 to 1.0 × 105 ng/ml. The percentage recovery (accuracy) varied from 99.83 to 104.2%, with RSD values (precision) ranging from 4.07 to 11.84%. The total extraction time was about 12 min and the HPLC analysis time was 5 min. The method was simple, selective and sensitive for the determination of favipiravir in real human plasma.  相似文献   
2.
In the pursuit to enlarge the library of polyimide materials for energy applications, new polyimide/MWCNTs composite films have been developed by MWCNTs-assisted polycondensation reaction of a hydroxyl and triphenylmethane-containing diamine with benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride targeting to highlight their electrical storage capability as flexible electrodes in micro-supercapacitors (mSCs). The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, UV–vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies were used to demonstrate the evolution of interfacial interactions between MWCNTs and the precursors (diamine monomer and intermediate polyamidic acid) and polyimide matrix that proved to be the origin of MWCNTs homogeneous dispersion. Thus, composite films incorporating 1, 3, 5, and 10 w.t.% MWCNTs were obtained and thoroughly investigated with regard to their morphology, mechanical behavior, thermal stability, and electrical conductivity. The electrochemical performance of these composites was first analyzed in a classical three-electrode cell by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge in both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. By far, the best electrical storage capacity was obtained with the composite polyimide film containing 10% MWCNTs that was further used as both active material and current collector in a flexible symmetric mSC realized by a straightforward and low-cost procedure. In the attempt to better exploit the advantages of this composite film, it was layered with a graphite-containing paint and tested as an electrode in a flexible mSC, which provided satisfactory results. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the electrical charge storage capability of a polyimide/MWCNTs free-standing film as a flexible electrode in mSCs, which do not require time- and resource-consuming processing steps.  相似文献   
3.
A liquid dewetting method for the determination of the viscoelastic properties of ultrathin polymer films has been extended to study thickness effects on the properties of ultrathin polycarbonate (PC) films. PC films with film thicknesses ranging from 4 to 299 nm were placed on glycerol at temperatures from below the macroscopic glass transition temperature (Tg) to above it with the dewetting responses being monitored. It is found that the isothermal creep results for films of the same thickness, but dewetted at different temperatures can be superposed into one master curve, which is consistent with the fact of PC being a thermorheologically simple material. Furthermore, the results show that the Tg of PC thin films is thickness dependent, but the dependence is weaker than the results for freely standing films and similar to literature data for PC films supported on rigid substrates. It was also found that the rubbery plateau region for the PC films stiffens dramatically, but still less than what has been observed for freely standing polycarbonate films. The rubbery stiffening is discussed in terms of a recently reported model that relates macroscopic segmental dynamics with the stiffening. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015 , 53, 1559–1566  相似文献   
4.
Herein, we report an addition to the toolbox for the monitoring and quantification of the hydrolytic decay of pentose-1-phosphates, which are known to be elusive and difficult to quantify. This communication describes how apparent equilibrium shifts of a nucleoside phosphorolysis reaction can be employed to calculate hydrolytic loss of pentose-1-phosphates based on the measurement of post-hydrolysis equilibrium concentrations of a nucleoside and a nucleobase. To demonstrate this approach, we assessed the stability of the relatively stable ribose-1-phosphate at 98 °C and found half-lives of 1.8–11.7 h depending on the medium pH. This approach can be extended to other sugar phosphates and related reaction systems to quantify the stability of UV-inactive and hard-to-detect reaction products and intermediates.  相似文献   
5.
In many organic electronic devices functionality is achieved by blending two or more materials, typically polymers or molecules, with distinctly different optical or electrical properties in a single film. The local scale morphology of such blends is vital for the device performance. Here, a simple approach to study the full 3D morphology of phase‐separated blends, taking advantage of the possibility to selectively dissolve the different components is introduced. This method is applied in combination with AFM to investigate a blend of a semiconducting and ferroelectric polymer typically used as active layer in organic ferroelectric resistive switches. It is found that the blend consists of a ferroelectric matrix with three types of embedded semiconductor domains and a thin wetting layer at the bottom electrode. Statistical analysis of the obtained images excludes the presence of a fourth type of domains. The criteria for the applicability of the presented technique are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015 , 53, 1231–1237  相似文献   
6.
7.
Supramolecular polyurethane ureas are expected to have superior mechanical properties primarily due to the reversible, noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding interactions. We synthesized polyurethane prepolymers from small molecular weight of poly(tetramethylene ether)glycol and isophorone diisocyanates, which were end capped with propylamine to synthesize polyurethane ureas with high contents of urea and urethane groups for hydrogen‐bonding formations to facilitate self‐healing. The effects of polyurethane urea molecular weight (3000 ≤ Mn ≤ 9000), crosslinking, and cutting direction were studied in terms of thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties with an emphasis on the self‐healing efficiency. It was found that the thermal self‐healability was more pronounced as the molecular weight of polyurethane urea decreased, showing a maximum of more than 96% with 3000 Mn when the sample was cut along the stretch direction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015 , 53, 468–474  相似文献   
8.
The development of biodegradable materials for tailored applications, particularly in the field of polymeric films and sheets, is a challenging technological goal as well as a contribution to help protect the environment. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) is a promising substitute for several oil-based polymers; however, to overcome its thermal and mechanical drawbacks, researchers have developed solutions such as blending PLA with polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT), which is capable of increasing the ductility of the final material. In this study, PLA/PBAT binary blends, with minimum possible content of nonrenewable materials, were examined from processing, thermal, morphological, and rheological perspective. An optimized PLA/PBAT ratio was chosen as the polymeric basis to obtain a biodegradable formulation by adding a biobased plasticizer and appropriate fillers to produce a micrometer film with tailored flexibility and tear resistance. The processing technology involved flat-die extrusion, followed by calendering. The tearing resistance of the produced film was investigated, and the results were compared with literature data. A study on the essential work of fracture was implemented to explore the mode III out-of-plane fracture resistance starting from a trouser tear test.  相似文献   
9.
Homogenous amphiphilic crosslinked polymer films comprising of poly(ethylene oxide) and polysiloxane were synthesized utilizing thiol‐ene “ click ” photochemistry. A systematic variation in polymer composition was Carried out to obtain high quality films with varied amount of siloxane and poly(ethylene oxide). These films showed improved gas separation performance with high gas permeabilities with good CO2/N2 selectivity. Furthermore, the resulting films were also tested for its biocompatibility, as a carrier media which allow human adult mesenchymal stem cells to retain their capacity for osteoblastic differentiation after transplantation. The obtained crosslinked films were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, Raman‐IR , and small angle X‐ray scattering. The synthesis ease and commercial availability of the starting materials suggests that these new crosslinked polymer networks could find applications in wide range of applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2015 , 53, 1548–1557  相似文献   
10.
Pyrrolopyrrole aza‐BODIPY (PPAB) developed in our recent study from diketopyrrolopyrrole by titanium tetrachloride‐mediated Schiff‐base formation reaction with heteroaromatic amines is a highly potential chromophore due to its intense absorption and fluorescence in the visible region and high fluorescence quantum yield, which is greater than 0.8. To control the absorption and fluorescence of PPAB, particularly in the near‐infrared (NIR) region, further molecular design was performed using DFT calculations. This results in the postulation that the HOMO–LUMO gap of PPAB is perturbed by the heteroaromatic moieties and the aryl‐substituents. Based on this molecular design, a series of new PPAB molecules was synthesized, in which the largest redshifts of the absorption and fluorescence maxima up to 803 and 850 nm, respectively, were achieved for a PPAB consisting of benzothiazole rings and terthienyl substituents. In contrast to the sharp absorption of PPAB, a PPAB dimer, which was prepared by a cross‐coupling reaction of PPAB monomers, exhibited panchromatic absorption across the UV/Vis/NIR regions. With this series of PPAB chromophores in hand, a potential application of PPAB as an optoelectronic material was investigated. After identifying a suitable PPAB molecule for application in organic photovoltaic cells based on evaluation using time‐resolved microwave conductivity measurements, a maximized power conversion efficiency of 1.27 % was achieved.  相似文献   
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