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1.
A new apparatus to measure simultaneously the density and viscosity of liquids has been designed and constructed based on the hydrostatic weighing and falling-body principles. The density and viscosity of monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) and their binary, (50%MEG + 50%DEG), (50%MEG + 50%TEG), (50%DEG + 50%TEG), and ternary (33.33%MEG + 33.33%DEG + 33.34%TEG) mixtures have been measured over the temperature range from 293 K to 473 K and at atmospheric pressure. The expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and viscosity measurements at the 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k = 2 is estimated to be 0.15% to 0.30%, 0.05%, 0.06 K, and 1.5% to 2.0% (depending on temperature and pressure ranges), respectively. The theoretically based Arrhenius–Andrade and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher type equations were used to describe the temperature dependence of measured viscosities for pure polyethylene glycols and their mixtures.  相似文献   

2.
《Fluid Phase Equilibria》2004,219(2):157-163
We present the extension of a recently developed method for modelling saline water to the thermodynamic prediction of phase behaviour for mixed salt–organic clathrate hydrate inhibitor aqueous solutions. Novel freezing point, boiling point and salt solubility data have been generated for NaCl–ethylene glycol (EG) and KCl–EG aqueous solutions. These data have been used in the optimisation of binary interaction parameters between salts and ethylene glycol. The extended thermodynamic model is capable of predicting complex vapour–liquid–solid (VLSE) equilibria for aqueous electrolytes and/or organic inhibitor solutions over a wide range of pressures, temperatures and inhibitor concentrations. Reliable hydrate dissociation data for two mixed salt–organic inhibitor quaternary systems (CH4–H2O–NaCl–EG and CH4–H2O–KCl–EG) have been measured at pressures up to 50 MPa. These data are used to validate the predictive capabilities of the model for hydrate equilibria. Good agreement between experimental data and predictions is observed, demonstrating the reliability of the developed model.  相似文献   

3.
An electrolyte activity coefficient model is proposed by combining non-electrolyte NRTL-NRF local composition model and Pitzer–Debye–Hückel equation as short-range and long-range contributions, respectively. With two adjustable parameters per each electrolyte, the present model is applied to correlation of the mean activity coefficients of more than 150 strong aqueous electrolyte solutions at 298.15 K. Also the results of the present model are compared with the other local composition models such as electrolyte-NRTL, electrolyte-NRTL-NRF and electrolyte-Wilson-NRF models. Moreover, the present model is used for prediction of the osmotic coefficient of several aqueous binary electrolytes systems at 298.15 K. Also the present activity coefficient model is adopted for representation of nonideality of the acid gases, as weak gas electrolytes, soluble in alkanolamine solutions. The model is applied for calculation of solubility and heat of absorption (enthalpy of solution) of acid gas in the two {(H2O + MDEA + CO2) and (H2O + MDEA + H2S)} systems at different conditions. The results demonstrate that the present model can be successfully applied to study thermodynamic properties of both strong and weak electrolyte solutions.  相似文献   

4.
In the present work, experimental data on the equilibrium conditions of mixed CO2 and THF hydrates in aqueous electrolyte solutions are reported. Seven different electrolytes (metal halides) were used in this work namely sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), potassium bromide (KBr), sodium fluoride (NaF), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium bromide (NaBr). All equilibrium data were measured by using Cailletet apparatus. Throughout this work, the overall concentration of CO2 and THF were kept constant at (0.04 and 0.05) mol fraction, respectively, while the concentration of electrolytes were varied. The experimental temperature ranged from (275 to 305) K and pressure up 7.10 MPa had been applied. From the experimental results, it is concluded that THF, which is soluble in water is able to suppress the salt inhibiting effect in the range studied. In all quaternary systems studied, a four-phase hydrate equilibrium line was observed where hydrate (H), liquid water (LW), liquid organic (LV), and vapour (V) exist simultaneously at specific pressure and temperature. The formation of this four-phase equilibrium line is mainly due to a liquid–liquid phase split of (water + THF) mixture when pressurized with CO2 and the split is enhanced by the salting-out effect of the electrolytes in the quaternary system. The strength of hydrate inhibition effect among the electrolytes was compared. The results shows the hydrate inhibiting effect of the metal halides is increasing in the order NaF < KBr < NaCl < NaBr < CaCl2 < MgCl2. Among the cations studied, the strength of hydrate inhibition increases in the following order: K+ < Na+ < Ca2+ < Mg2+. Meanwhile, the strength of hydrate inhibition among the halogen anion studied decreases in the following order: Br? > Cl? > F?. Based on the results, it is suggested that the probability of formation and the strength of ionic–hydrogen bond between an ion and water molecule and the effects of this bond on the ambient water network are the major factors that contribute to hydrate inhibition by electrolytes.  相似文献   

5.
《Fluid Phase Equilibria》2006,244(2):153-159
Modeling and prediction of activity coefficients of electrolytes and biomolecules is a key to developing the separation and purification processes of biomolecules. In this paper the systems containing amino acids or peptide + water + one electrolyte (NaCl, KCl, NaBr, KBr) are modeled by different types of neural networks and an artificial neural network (ANN) is designed that can predict the mean ionic activity coefficient ratio of electrolytes in presence and in absence of amino acid in different mixtures better than the common polynomial equations proposed for this kind of predictions. It was found that the designed ANN which is a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) type network can be better trained than other types of neural network.The root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the designed neural network in prediction of the mean ionic activity coefficient ratio of electrolytes is less than 0.005 and proves the effectiveness of the ANN in correlation and prediction of activity coefficients in the studied mixtures.  相似文献   

6.
A new set of molar heat capacity data for aqueous {2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol (TRIS) + glycol} at (30 to 80) °C and different concentrations (4% to 16% by weight TRIS or 56% to 44% by weight water, in a fixed amount of glycol – 40% by weight) were gathered via reliable measurement method and are presented in this report. The glycols considered were diethylene glycol (DEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), tetraethylene glycol (T4EG), propylene glycol (PG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), and tripropylene glycol (TPG). The 198 data points gathered fit the equation, Cp = Cp,a + B1m + B2m2 + B3m3, where Cp and Cp,a are the molar heat capacities of the (TRIS + glycol + water) and (water + glycol) systems, respectively, Bi the temperature-dependent parameters, and m the mole TRIS per kilogram (glycol + water). The overall average absolute deviation (AAD) of the experimental data from the corresponding values calculated from the correlation equation was 0.07%.  相似文献   

7.
In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapor pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {(40.0 wt%) glycol + salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The considered glycols were diethylene, triethylene, and tetraethylene glycol; and the salt is magnesium chloride (wt% = 4.0, 9.0, and 16.0). The density and vapor pressure were presented as functions of temperature and compositions. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the present density data and a model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the measured vapor pressure as functions of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapor pressure calculations.  相似文献   

8.
Thermal recovery of mono ethylene glycol (MEG) from aqueous streams is one of the most energy demanding operations in industry, because of the large amount of water that needs to be evaporated. The use of alternative technologies such as liquid–liquid extraction could save energy. A new tailor made ionic liquid (IL), tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methy-1-naphtoate [TOA MNaph] was designed in a previous stage of our research on MEG recovery from aqueous streams (Garcia-Chavez et al., 2011) [3]. Here, we report the liquid–liquid equilibrium data for the MEG + water + [TOA MNaph] system at atmospheric pressure for three different temperatures, (313.2, 333.2 and 353.2) K. The experimental equilibrium data was correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models. Both models were able to describe the system adequately, root square mean deviations (RMSD) of 1.34% and 0.89% were obtained respectively.  相似文献   

9.
Natural gas hydrates are ice-like inclusion compounds that form at high pressures and low temperatures in the presence of water and light hydrocarbons. Hydrate formation conditions are favorable in gas and oil pipelines, and their formation threatens gas and oil production. Thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors (THIs) are chemicals (e.g., methanol, monoethylene glycol) deployed in gas pipelines to depress the equilibrium temperature required for hydrate formation. This work presents a novel application of a stepwise differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurement to accurately determine the methane hydrate phase boundary in the presence of THIs. The scheme is first validated on a model (ice + salt water) system, and then generalized to measure hydrate equilibrium temperatures for pure systems and 0.035 mass fraction NaCl solutions diluted to 0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 mass fraction methanol. The hydrate equilibrium temperatures are measured at methane pressures from (7.0 to 20.0) MPa. The measured equilibrium temperatures are compared to values computed by the predictive hydrate equilibrium tool CSMGem.  相似文献   

10.
In the present communication, we report the electrochemical formation of self-organized titanium oxide nanotubes (π-TiO2) prepared in fluoride ion containing phosphate electrolytes. The morphology of the π-TiO2 layers (particularly the pore diameter and length) is affected by the electrochemical conditions used (applied potential, electrolyte composition, pH, and anodizing time). Under specific sets of conditions highly self-organized titanium oxide nanotubes are formed with diameters varying from approx. 40 nm to 100 nm and length from approx. 100 nm to 4 μm. XPS investigations show that the nanotubes formed in phosphate solutions contain a significant amount of phosphorous species.  相似文献   

11.
In this work, the performance of nine ionic liquids (ILs) as thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors is investigated. The dissociation temperature is determined for methane gas hydrates using a high pressure micro deferential scanning calorimeter between (3.6 and 11.2) MPa. All the aqueous IL solutions are studied at a mass fraction of 0.10. The performance of the two best ILs is further investigated at various concentrations. Electrical conductivity and pH of these aqueous IL solutions (0.10 mass fraction) are also measured. The enthalpy of gas hydrate dissociation is calculated by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. It is found that the ILs shift the methane hydrate (liquid + vapour) equilibrium curve (HLVE) to lower temperature and higher pressure. Our results indicate 1-(2-hydroxyethyl) 3-methylimidazolium chloride is the best among the ILs studied as a thermodynamic hydrate inhibitor. A statistical analysis reveals there is a moderate correlation between electrical conductivity and the efficiency of the IL as a gas hydrate inhibitor. The average enthalpies of methane hydrate dissociation in the presence of these ILs are found to be in the range of (57.0 to 59.1) kJ  mol−1. There is no significant difference between the dissociation enthalpy of methane hydrate either in the presence or in absence of ILs.  相似文献   

12.
《Vibrational Spectroscopy》2007,43(2):206-214
Solid deposits have been formed at 88 K and 10−1 Torr from ethanol–water gas collected above aqueous solutions of ethanol (EtOH) (0.6, 2, 4.5, 9 and 17 mol%). The composition of different gas mixtures varying between 1:16 and 1:0.8 EtOH:H2O are determined at 295 K using our experimental vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) data in combination with the Wilson model [28]. The Wilson constants derived at this temperature are Λ12 = 0.37(4) and Λ21 = 0.58(5). The concentration of EtOH in the ice mixture can be calculated using these data and a kinetic model of condensation. It is found to vary between 9 and 65 mol% EtOH. The ice mixtures are analyzed in situ in a modified cryostage by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The distinct vibrational signatures of pure EtOH, EtOH aqueous solutions and EtOH–ice mixtures are identified in the 400–3800 cm−1 spectral range. Internal vibrational motions of EtOH molecules are affected by temperature and concentration. The presence of amorphous EtOH–ice phases at 88 K is demonstrated by the characteristic vibrational signatures of the νOH stretching modes. The crystallization of an EtOH hydrate is proposed during annealing at ∼140 K of a 65 mol% EtOH–ice mixture. According to our preliminary X-ray diffraction work, this phase has apparently a distinct structure from that of solid EtOH or from EtOH–clathtrate structures usually found in frozen aqueous solutions. For ice mixtures of lower EtOH content, a distinct hydrate phase crystallizes at ∼170 K. These results suggest that ice mixtures obtained by vapor deposition reflect the existence of EtOH clusters of a distinctive structural nature with respect to those encountered in frozen aqueous mixtures.  相似文献   

13.
The separation of methane and ethane through forming hydrate is a possible choice in natural gas, oil processing, or ethylene producing. The hydrate formation conditions of five groups of (methane + ethane) binary gas mixtures in the presence of 0.06 mole fraction tetrahydrofuran (THF) in water were obtained at temperatures ranging from (277.7 to 288.2) K. In most cases, the presence of THF in water can lower the hydrate formation pressure of (methane + ethane) remarkably. However, when the composition of ethane is as high as 0.832, it is more difficult to form hydrate than without THF system. Phase equilibrium model for hydrates containing THF was developed based on a two-step hydrate formation mechanism. The structure of hydrates formed from (methane + ethane + THF + water) system was also determined by Raman spectroscopy. When THF concentration in initial aqueous solution was only 0.06 mole fraction, the coexistence of structure I hydrate dominated by ethane and structure II hydrate dominated by THF in the hydrate sample was clearly demonstrated by Raman spectroscopic data. On the contrary, only structure II hydrate existed in the hydrate sample formed from (methane + ethane + THF + water) system when THF concentration in initial aqueous solution was increased to 0.10 mole fraction. It indicated that higher THF concentration inhibited the formation of structure I hydrate dominated by ethane and therefore lowered the trapping of ethane in hydrate. It implies a very promising method to increase the separation efficiency of methane and ethane.  相似文献   

14.
Early stages of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation at a tin foil electrode in an ethylene carbonate (EC) based electrolyte were investigated by in situ AFM and cyclic voltammetry (CV) at potentials >0.7 V, i.e., above the potential of Sn–Li alloying. We detected and observed initial steps of the surface film formation at ~2.8 V vs. Li/Li+ followed by gradual film morphology changes at potentials 0.7 < U < 2.5 V. The SEI layer undergoes continuous reformation during the following CV cycles between 0.7 and 2.5 V. The surface film on Sn does not effectively prevent the electrolyte reduction and a large fraction of the reaction products dissolve in the electrolyte. The unstable SEI layer on Sn in EC-based electrolytes may compromise the use of tin-based anodes in Li-ion battery systems unless the interfacial chemistry of the electrode and/or electrolyte is modified.  相似文献   

15.
The dissociation conditions of methane hydrate in the presence of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mass fraction of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (abbreviated by EMIM-Cl hereafter) were experimentally determined. A high pressure micro-differential scanning calorimeter equipped with a motorized pump was applied to measure the dissociation temperature of the (hydrate + liquid water + vapor) three-phase equilibrium under a constant pressure process with a pressure ranging from (5.0 to 35.0) MPa. The addition of EMIM-Cl would inhibit the methane hydrate formation. The most significant inhibition effect was observed at 0.4 mass fraction of EMIM-Cl in aqueous solution to lower the dissociation temperature by 12.82 K at 20.00 MPa in comparison to that of the (methane + water) system. The Peng–Robinson–Stryjek–Vera equation of state incorporated with COSMO-SAC activity coefficient model and the first order modified Huron–Vidal mixing rule were applied to evaluate the fugacity of vapor and liquid phase. A modified van der Waals and Platteeuw model with an explicit pressure dependence of the Langmuir adsorption constant was applied to determine the fugacity of hydrate phase. The predictive thermodynamic model successfully describes the tendency of phase behavior of methane hydrate in the presence of EMIM-Cl in the range from 0.1 to 0.4 mass fraction with absolute average relative deviation in predicted temperature of 0.70%.  相似文献   

16.
《Fluid Phase Equilibria》2005,238(2):180-185
Data on the solubility of manganese sulphate monohydrate in water, and in aqueous alcohols is essential for salting-out crystallization studies. The solubilities for the quaternary system MnSO4·H2O + MgSO4·7H2O + H2O + MeOH solution were determined in the temperature ranges 293.2–308.2 K over the mole fraction methanol ranges of 0.00–0.16. The solubility data were used for modelling with the modified extended electrolyte non-random two-liquid (NRTL) equation. The present extension uses ion-specific parameters instead of the electrolyte-specific NRTL binary interaction parameters. This approach has feasibility for many electrolytes and mixed aqueous solution systems principally. The model was found to correlate the solubility data satisfactory.  相似文献   

17.
Three kinds of lithium chloride desiccants were selected, which are considered to be potential and interesting working fluids for a desiccant/dehumidification or absorption refrigeration system, and their isobaric specific heat capacities were determined in this context. Experiments were conducted at a high accuracy twin-cell scanning calorimeter. The temperature accuracy and heat flux resolution of the calorimeter are ±0.05 K and 0.1 μW respectively. The data of lithium chloride + water and lithium chloride + triethylene glycol (TEG)/propylene glycol (PG) + water systems were achieved at temperatures from 308.15 K to 343.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The mass fraction of LiCl ranged from 15% to 45% in the LiCl + H2O system, and the mass fraction of LiCl and glycol ranged from 10% to 23.3% and 20% to 46.7% in the ternary systems respectively. Based on the experimental heat capacity data, a universal empirical formula was correlated as a function of temperature and solute mass fraction. In the experimental mass fractions and temperatures range, the average absolute deviation (AAD) between experiment results and calculated values is no more than 0.15%, and maximum absolute deviation (MAD) is within 0.38%. These thermodynamic data of lithium chloride solutions can be effectively used for analysis and design of desiccant/dehumidification systems and absorption refrigeration systems in both refrigeration and chemical industry.  相似文献   

18.
The activity coefficient data were reported for (water  +  potassium chloride  + dl -valine) at T =  298.15 K and (water  +  sodium chloride  + l -valine) at T =  308.15 K. The measurements were performed in an electrochemical cell using ion-selective electrodes. The maximum concentrations of the electrolytes and the amino acids studied were 1.0 molality and 0.4 molality, respectively. The results of the activity coefficients of dl -valine are compared with the activity coefficients of dl -valine in (water  +  sodium chloride  + dl -valine) system obtained from the previous study. The results show that the presence of an electrolyte and the nature of its cation have a significant effect on the activity coefficient of dl -valine in aqueous electrolyte solutions.  相似文献   

19.
The three-phase equilibrium conditions of ternary (hydrogen + tert-butylamine + water) system were first measured under high-pressure in a “full view” sapphire cell. The tert-butylamine–hydrogen binary hydrate phase transition points were obtained through determining the points of intersection of three phases (H–Lw–V) to two phases (Lw–V) experimentally. Measurements were made using an isochoric method. Firstly, (tetrahydrofuran + hydrogen) binary hydrate phase equilibrium data were determined with this method and compared with the corresponding experimental data reported in the literatures and the acceptable agreements demonstrated the reliability of the experimental method used in this work. The experimental investigation on (tert-butylamine + hydrogen) binary hydrate phase equilibrium was then carried out within the temperature range of (268.4 to 274.7) K and in the pressure range of (9.54 to 29.95) MPa at (0.0556, 0.0886, 0.0975, and 0.13) mole fraction of tert-butylamine. The three-phase equilibrium curve (H + Lw + V) was found to be dependent on the concentration of tert-butylamine solution. Dissociation experimental results showed that tert-butylamine as a hydrate former shifted hydrate stability region to lower pressure and higher temperature.  相似文献   

20.
One of the major assumptions of the original van der Waals–Platteeuw (vdWP) model is the single occupancy of hydrate cavities. In this work, the vdWP model is modified to also account for multiple occupancies of hydrate cavities by small molecules. The developed model is evaluated by calculating the hydrate equilibrium conditions with either oxygen or nitrogen as guest molecules in pure form, as well as mixtures of nitrogen and propane (molecules of these pure gases and those in (nitrogen + propane) have double occupancy in large cavities of structure II up to a certain concentration of propane). The results of this modified model show good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature.  相似文献   

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