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In spite of the interference manifested in the double-slit experiment, quantum theory predicts that a measure of interference defined by Sorkin and involving various outcome probabilities from an experiment with three slits, is identically zero. We adapt Sorkin’s measure into a general operational probabilistic framework for physical theories, and then study its relationship to the structure of quantum theory. In particular, we characterize the class of probabilistic theories for which the interference measure is zero as ones in which it is possible to fully determine the state of a system via specific sets of ‘two-slit’ experiments.  相似文献   

We represent Born’s rule as an analog of the formula of total probability (FTP): the classical formula is perturbed by an additive interference term. In this note we consider practically the most general case: generalized quantum observables given by positive operator valued measures and measurement feedback on states described by atomic instruments. This representation of Born’s rule clarifies the probabilistic structure of quantum mechanics (QM). The probabilistic counterpart of QM can be treated as the probability update machinery based on the special generalization of classical FTP. This is the essence of the Växjö interpretation of QM: statistical realist contextual and local interpretation. We analyze the origin of the additional interference term in quantum FTP by considering the contextual structure of the two slit experiment which was emphasized by R. Feynman.  相似文献   

夏庆峰  周玉欣  高云峰 《物理学报》2009,58(3):1685-1688
研究了高Q腔中单个二能级原子与两模二项式光场依赖强度耦合相互作用系统的腔场谱,给出了弱初始场条件下的数值结果,讨论了两模光场之间的量子干涉对腔场谱结构的影响. 发现当两模光场的频率差Δ>gg为原子与腔场间的耦合常数)时,两模光场间的干涉效应对谱结构没有影响,系统的腔肠谱只是两模腔肠谱的简单叠加;当Δg时两模腔场谱间的干涉比较明显. 在强初始场条件下,量子干涉效应可忽略. 关键词: 腔场谱 量子干涉 两模二项式光场  相似文献   

We study the quantum dynamics of N coherently driven two-level atoms coupled to an optical resonator. In the strong coupling regime the cavity field generated by atomic scattering interferes destructively with the pump on the atoms. This suppresses atomic excitation and even for strong driving fields prevents atomic saturation, while the stationary intracavity field amplitude is almost independent of the atom number. The magnitude of the interference effect depends on the detuning between laser and cavity field and on the relative atomic positions and is strongest for a wavelength spaced lattice of atoms placed at the antinodes of the cavity mode. In this case three dimensional intensity minima are created in the vicinity of each atom. In this regime spontaneous emission is suppressed and the dominant loss channel is cavity decay. Even for a cavity linewidth larger than the atomic natural width, one regains strong interference through the cooperative action of a sufficiently large number of atoms. These results give a new key to understand recent experiments on collective cavity cooling and may allow to implement fast tailored atom-atom interactions as well as nonperturbative particle detection with very small energy transfer.Received: 18 May 2004, Published online: 19 October 2004PACS: 32.80.Pj Optical cooling of atoms; trapping - 42.50.Pq Cavity quantum electrodynamics; micromasers - 42.50.Fx Cooperative phenomena in quantum optical systems  相似文献   

Reichenbach's principles of a probabilistic common cause of probabilistic correlations is formulated in terms of relativistic quantum field theory, and the problem is raised whether correlations in relativistic quantum field theory between events represented by projections in local observable algebrasA(V1) andA(V2) pertaining to spacelike separated spacetime regions V1 and V2 can be explained by finding a probabilistic common cause of the correlation in Reichenbach's sense. While this problem remains open, it is shown that if all superluminal correlations predicted by the vacuum state between events inA(V1) andA(V2) have a genuinely probabilistic common cause, then the local algebrasA(V1) andA(V2) must be statistically independent in the sense of C*-independence.  相似文献   

李悦科  张桂明  高云峰 《物理学报》2010,59(3):1786-1790
研究了两模二项式光场与二能级原子在高Q腔中发生双光子相互作用过程的腔场谱,给出了弱初始场条件下腔场谱的数值计算结果,讨论了两模腔场谱间的量子干涉.结果表明:两模腔场谱间的量子干涉随着频差的增大而呈现出周期性的衰减振荡,其振荡周期约为0·16g(g为原子与光场的相互作用强度系数),频差大于1·6g时干涉效应已经很弱.量子干涉还与初始场强度有关,随着初始场最大光子数的增加,量子干涉效应逐渐增强,但当光子数大于4时,干涉效应迅速减弱,当最大光子数大于6时,量子干涉现象几乎消失.  相似文献   

Kerr效应对二项式腔场谱量子干涉的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
李悦科  张桂明  高云峰 《物理学报》2010,59(9):6178-6184
研究了含Kerr介质高Q腔内单个二能级原子与双模二项式光场发生双光子共振相互作用系统的腔场谱,给出了Kerr效应与量子干涉项ΔS(ω)关系的数值计算结果,讨论了Kerr效应对二项式腔场谱量子干涉的影响.结果表明:若初始时刻原子处于激发态而双模光场处于二项式态,随Kerr效应的增强,致使量子干涉项引起谱线强度的改变量呈现出"不规则的周期性衰减振荡"特性,震荡幅度与两模光场的频差密切相关.在Kerr系数χg(g为光场与原子的耦合常数)时,Kerr效应对干涉项的影响比较强烈;在χg时,趋于平稳.随着Kerr效应的增强,系统腔场谱由对称结构逐渐演化为不对称的多谱线结构.  相似文献   

Many non-Hermitian but PT-symmetric theories are known to have a real, positive spectrum, and for quantum-mechanical versions of these theories, there exists a consistent probabilistic interpretation. Since the action is complex for these theories, Monte Carlo methods do not apply. In this paper a field-theoretic method for numerical simulations of PT-symmetric Hamiltonians is presented. The method is the complex Langevin equation, which has been used previously to study complex Hamiltonians in statistical physics and in Minkowski space. We compute the equal-time one-point and two-point Green's functions in zero and one dimension, where comparisons to known results can be made. The method should also be applicable in four-dimensional space-time. This approach may grant insight into the formulation of a probabilistic interpretation for path integrals in PT-symmetric quantum field theories.  相似文献   

马瑞琼  李永放  时坚 《物理学报》2008,57(7):4083-4090
利用解析方法描述了相干瞬态量子体系中不同类型的量子干涉效应,分别讨论了光学干涉与量子干涉所起的作用,分析了在时域对称光场作用下,几何相位在量子干涉效应中所扮演的角色,从理论上证明了通过适当改变抽运场脉冲面积,可实现对几何相位的测量. 同时研究也发现利用啁啾抽运场可以实现对量子干涉效应的有效控制. 关键词: 相干瞬态 量子干涉 几何相位 啁啾脉冲  相似文献   

This paper presents, for the general relativistic case, a theoretical study of nonresonance spontaneous bremsstrahlung by an electron scattered by a nucleus in the field of two elliptically polarized light waves propagating in the same direction. We show that there are two significantly different kinematic regions: the noninterference region where the main multiphoton parameters are the Bunkin-Fedorov quantum parameters γ 1,2, and the interference region where interference effects play an important role and where the quantum interference parameters α(±) act as multiphoton parameters. We encounter the spontaneous interference bremsstrahlung effect in two cases: in the special case of the same linear polarization of both waves, and in the general case of elliptical polarization of the waves. The effect manifests itself in the interference region and is due to stimulated, correlated emission and absorption of photons of both waves. For moderately strong fields, we find the cross sections of spontaneous bremsstrahlung by an electron scattered by a nucleus in the given kinematic regions. Finally, we show that the differential cross section in the interference region with correlated emission (absorption) of equal numbers of photons of both waves can be much greater than the corresponding cross section in any other geometry. Zh. éksp. Teor. Fiz. 116, 1210–1240 (October 1999)  相似文献   

In this paper, the effect of quantum interference on the entanglement of a driven V-type three-level atom and its spontaneous emission field was investigated by using the quantum entropy. The results indicate that, in the absence of quantum interference the atom and its spontaneous emission field are always entangled at the steady-state. But, in the presence of full quantum interference their steady-state entanglement depends on the atomic parameters. Specifically, with appropriate atomic parameters they can be entangled or disentangled at the steady-state. We realized that the steady-state entanglement is due to completely destructive nature of quantum interference. On the contrary, the steady-state disentanglement is due to instructive nature of quantum interference.  相似文献   

对拉盖尔-高斯光束经多圆孔衍射屏在远场平面上形成的干涉光场的相位和零值线进行了计算模拟.当入射光束的轨道角动量量子数为零时,实部零值线与虚部零值线在干涉光场中心点不相交,因而在该点上不能形成相位涡旋.当入射光束的轨道角动量量子数为+1和-1时,实部零值线与虚部零值线在干涉光场中心垂直并相交,干涉光场相应位置处的相位涡旋的符号相反.当入射光束的轨道角动量量子数为±2和±3时,有四条零值线相交于干涉光场的中心点上,并且实部零值线和虚部零值线交替分布,该交点处形成的相位涡旋的拓扑荷的值恰好与拉盖尔-高斯光束的轨道角动量量子数相等.这种结果可以用来测量涡旋光束的轨道角动量.  相似文献   

Multilevel quantum coherence and its quantum‐vacuum counterpart, where a three‐level dark state is involved, are suggested in order to achieve new photonic and quantum optical applications. It is shown that such a three‐level dark state in a four‐level tripod‐configuration atomic system consists of three lower levels, where constructive and destructive quantum interference between two control transitions (driven by two control fields) arises. We point out that the controllable optical response due to the double‐control tunable quantum interference can be utilized to design some fascinating new photonic devices such as logic gates, photonic transistors and switches at quantum level. A single‐photon two‐input XOR logic gate (in which the incident “gate” photons are the individual light quanta of the two control fields) based on such an effect of optical switching control with an EIT (electromagnetically induced transparency) microcavity is suggested as an illustrative example of the application of the dark‐state manipulation via the double‐control quantum interference. The present work would open up possibility of new applications in both fundamental physics (e.g., field quantization and relevant quantum optical effects in artificial systems that can mimic atomic energy levels) and applied physics (e.g., photonic devices such as integrated optical circuits at quantum level).  相似文献   

朱艳  顾永建  徐舟  谢琳  马丽珍 《光子学报》2010,39(3):537-542
提出一个量子概率克隆机的物理实现方案,该方案首先将高Q腔中的两个超导量子干涉仪分别作为初始比特和目标比特,腔模作为测量比特,通过腔模和经典微波脉冲与超导量子干涉仪的多种相互作用实现量子概率克隆机的幺正演化;然后将腔模态映射到另一个超导量子干涉仪上,通过对该超导量子干涉仪磁通量的测量完成状态坍缩,从而以最优的成功概率实现量子态的精确克隆.本方案采用双光子拉曼共振过程加快单比特门的操作速率,并且总操作时间远小于自发辐射和腔模衰变时间,因而在实验上是可行的.  相似文献   


So far, all existing quantum oblivious transfer protocols focused on realization of the oblivious transfer of a classical bit or classical bit-string. In this paper, p-Rabin quantum oblivious transfer of a qubit protocol is achieved by using a probabilistic teleportation protocol. As the probabilistic teleportation protocol is able to transfer an (un)known pure state with a certain probability, this feature makes the probabilistic teleportation protocol well fit for Rabin oblivious transfer. Here, this is the first time that the concept of qubit oblivious transfer is presented. Furthermore, p-Rabin quantum oblivious transfer of a qubit protocol can also be used for oblivious of a bit by encoding classical bit with two pre-agreed orthogonal states. Finally, security analysis shows that the protocol satisfies the security requirements of oblivious transfer, and what’s more, the discussion of relationship with no-go theorem demonstrates that the probabilistic teleportation protocol is able to evade the no-go theorem.


Parrondo games are coin flipping games with the surprising property that alternating plays of two losing games can produce a winning game. We show that this phenomenon can be modelled by probabilistic lattice gas automata. Furthermore, motivated by the recent introduction of quantum coin flipping games, we show that quantum lattice gas automata provide an interesting definition for quantum Parrondo games.  相似文献   

We study the equilibrium dynamics of the relative phase in a superconducting Josephson link taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum. The photons act as a superohmic heat bath on the relative Cooper pair number and thus, indirectly, on the macroscopic phase difference φ. This leads to an enhancement of the mean square 〈φ2〉 that adds to the spread due to the Coulomb interaction carried by the longitudinal electromagnetic field. We also include the interaction with the electronic degrees of freedom due to quasiparticle tunneling, which couple to the phase and only indirectly to the particle number. The simultaneous inclusion of both the radiation field fluctuations and quasiparticle tunneling leads to a novel type of particle-bath Hamiltonian in which the quantum particle couples through its position and momentum to two independent bosonic heat baths. We study the interplay between the two mechanisms in the present context and find interference contributions to the quantum fluctuations of the phase. We explore the observability of the QED effects discussed here.  相似文献   

In an interferometer, path information and interference visibility are incompatible quantities. Complete determination of the path will exclude any possibility of interference, rendering zero visibility. However, it is, under certain conditions, possible to trade the path information for improved (conditioned) visibility. This procedure is called quantum erasure. We have performed such experiments with polarization-entangled photon pairs. Using a partial polarizer, we could vary the degree of entanglement between the object and the probe. We could also vary the interferometer splitting ratio and thereby vary the a priori path predictability. This allowed us to test quantum erasure under a number of different experimental conditions. All experiments were in good agreement with theory. Received 15 July 2001 and Received in final form 30 November 2001  相似文献   

We investigate quantum Fisher information dynamics of a collection of interacting spins with a strong coupling. Approximate analytical expressions of quantum Fisher information is presented. Our analysis shows that the maximal quantum Fisher information always appears in the x direction with an extended period and it can be controlled by adjusting the coupling strength of the internal field and the total atomic number.  相似文献   

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