*three*slits, is identically zero. We adapt Sorkin’s measure into a general operational probabilistic framework for physical theories, and then study its relationship to the structure of quantum theory. In particular, we characterize the class of probabilistic theories for which the interference measure is zero as ones in which it is possible to fully determine the state of a system via specific sets of ‘two-slit’ experiments. 相似文献

*N*coherently driven two-level atoms coupled to an optical resonator. In the strong coupling regime the cavity field generated by atomic scattering interferes destructively with the pump on the atoms. This suppresses atomic excitation and even for strong driving fields prevents atomic saturation, while the stationary intracavity field amplitude is almost independent of the atom number. The magnitude of the interference effect depends on the detuning between laser and cavity field and on the relative atomic positions and is strongest for a wavelength spaced lattice of atoms placed at the antinodes of the cavity mode. In this case three dimensional intensity minima are created in the vicinity of each atom. In this regime spontaneous emission is suppressed and the dominant loss channel is cavity decay. Even for a cavity linewidth larger than the atomic natural width, one regains strong interference through the cooperative action of a sufficiently large number of atoms. These results give a new key to understand recent experiments on collective cavity cooling and may allow to implement fast tailored atom-atom interactions as well as nonperturbative particle detection with very small energy transfer.Received: 18 May 2004, Published online: 19 October 2004PACS: 32.80.Pj Optical cooling of atoms; trapping - 42.50.Pq Cavity quantum electrodynamics; micromasers - 42.50.Fx Cooperative phenomena in quantum optical systems 相似文献

*A*(V

_{1}) and

*A*(V

_{2}) pertaining to spacelike separated spacetime regions V

_{1}and V

_{2}can be explained by finding a probabilistic common cause of the correlation in Reichenbach's sense. While this problem remains open, it is shown that if all superluminal correlations predicted by the vacuum state between events in

*A*(V

_{1}) and

*A*(V

_{2}) have a genuinely probabilistic common cause, then the local algebras

*A*(V

_{1}) and

*A*(V

_{2}) must be statistically independent in the sense of C

^{*}-independence. 相似文献

*PT*-symmetric theories are known to have a real, positive spectrum, and for quantum-mechanical versions of these theories, there exists a consistent probabilistic interpretation. Since the action is complex for these theories, Monte Carlo methods do not apply. In this paper a field-theoretic method for numerical simulations of

*PT*-symmetric Hamiltonians is presented. The method is the complex Langevin equation, which has been used previously to study complex Hamiltonians in statistical physics and in Minkowski space. We compute the equal-time one-point and two-point Green's functions in zero and one dimension, where comparisons to known results can be made. The method should also be applicable in four-dimensional space-time. This approach may grant insight into the formulation of a probabilistic interpretation for path integrals in

*PT*-symmetric quantum field theories. 相似文献

*γ*

_{1,2}, and the interference region where interference effects play an important role and where the quantum interference parameters

*α*(±) act as multiphoton parameters. We encounter the spontaneous interference bremsstrahlung effect in two cases: in the special case of the same linear polarization of both waves, and in the general case of elliptical polarization of the waves. The effect manifests itself in the interference region and is due to stimulated, correlated emission and absorption of photons of both waves. For moderately strong fields, we find the cross sections of spontaneous bremsstrahlung by an electron scattered by a nucleus in the given kinematic regions. Finally, we show that the differential cross section in the interference region with correlated emission (absorption) of equal numbers of photons of both waves can be much greater than the corresponding cross section in any other geometry. Zh. éksp. Teor. Fiz.

**116**, 1210–1240 (October 1999) 相似文献

^{}《Optics Communications》2009,282(6):1171-1174

*control*transitions (driven by two

*control*fields) arises. We point out that the controllable optical response due to the double‐control

*tunable*quantum interference can be utilized to design some fascinating new photonic devices such as logic gates, photonic transistors and switches at quantum level. A single‐photon two‐input XOR logic gate (in which the incident “gate” photons are the individual light quanta of the two control fields) based on such an effect of optical switching control with an EIT (electromagnetically induced transparency) microcavity is suggested as an illustrative example of the application of the

*dark‐state manipulation*via the

*double‐control quantum interference*. The present work would open up possibility of new applications in both fundamental physics (e.g., field quantization and relevant quantum optical effects in artificial systems that can mimic atomic energy levels) and applied physics (e.g., photonic devices such as integrated optical circuits at quantum level). 相似文献

So far, all existing quantum oblivious transfer protocols focused on realization of the oblivious transfer of a classical bit or classical bit-string. In this paper, *p*-Rabin quantum oblivious transfer of a qubit protocol is achieved by using a probabilistic teleportation protocol. As the probabilistic teleportation protocol is able to transfer an (un)known pure state with a certain probability, this feature makes the probabilistic teleportation protocol well fit for Rabin oblivious transfer. Here, this is the first time that the concept of qubit oblivious transfer is presented. Furthermore, *p*-Rabin quantum oblivious transfer of a qubit protocol can also be used for oblivious of a bit by encoding classical bit with two pre-agreed orthogonal states. Finally, security analysis shows that the protocol satisfies the security requirements of oblivious transfer, and what’s more, the discussion of relationship with no-go theorem demonstrates that the probabilistic teleportation protocol is able to evade the no-go theorem.

*quantum*coin flipping games, we show that quantum lattice gas automata provide an interesting definition for quantum Parrondo games. 相似文献

*φ*. This leads to an enhancement of the mean square 〈

*φ*

^{2}〉 that adds to the spread due to the Coulomb interaction carried by the longitudinal electromagnetic field. We also include the interaction with the electronic degrees of freedom due to quasiparticle tunneling, which couple to the phase and only indirectly to the particle number. The simultaneous inclusion of both the radiation field fluctuations and quasiparticle tunneling leads to a novel type of particle-bath Hamiltonian in which the quantum particle couples through its position and momentum to two independent bosonic heat baths. We study the interplay between the two mechanisms in the present context and find interference contributions to the quantum fluctuations of the phase. We explore the observability of the QED effects discussed here. 相似文献

*a priori*path predictability. This allowed us to test quantum erasure under a number of different experimental conditions. All experiments were in good agreement with theory. Received 15 July 2001 and Received in final form 30 November 2001 相似文献

*x*direction with an extended period and it can be controlled by adjusting the coupling strength of the internal field and the total atomic number. 相似文献