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1.
基于信用支付和现金折扣的变质物品库存模型   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
张冲  戴更新  韩广华  李明 《运筹与管理》2007,16(6):33-37,41
本文在供应商提供给零售商定期信用支付和现金折扣情况下,研究了零售商的变质物品最优库存问题。基于信用支付和现金折扣的两种支付条件下,分四种情况建立库存模型,并给出了寻求变质物品最优订购周期和最优付款时间的有效算法。最后,给出算例以及最优解,以说明本模型及求解过程。  相似文献   

2.
零售商常常根据不同"年龄"的易变质产品质量的差异而制定不同的价格,从而会带来不同的顾客需求.而当某个"年龄"的产品缺货时,顾客可能会购买其他"年龄"的产品作为替代.在上述背景下,本文考虑某个销售季节内多周期等量订货策略,分别在单周期和多周期情况下找到了零售商的最优订货量.  相似文献   

3.
通过建立数量折扣设计优化模型,利用委托代理理论分别分析了完全和不完全需求信息条件下,商品供应商如何为一群异质的零售商制定价格政策,实现其中望利润的最大化.在完全需求信息条件下,单一价格就能使供应商实现利润最大化;而在需求信息为不对称条件下,逆向选择使单一价格失效,此时,数量折扣是一种能够有效增加零售商订货量的激励方式.  相似文献   

4.
本文考虑由单一供应商和零售商组成的供应链系统,当供应商为零售商提供回购契约,同时零售商又为下游顾客提供商业信用契约时,供应商如何设计回购契约来有效协调整个供应链,以及零售商又如何借助回购和商业信用契约来做出自身最优订货策略问题,并建立了相应的决策模型。通过模型分析,给出了供应商和零售商在四种情形下的最优契约设计参数,以及零售商的最优订货决策。研究发现,当满足一定的参数范围时,供应链中两主体同时采用协调契约能够更加有效地增加整个供应链中的订货量和利润,为各主体创造更多新的价值。最后,本文结合数值例子,分析了模型参数变化对最优订货策略和各主体利润的影响。  相似文献   

5.
部分延期付款下易腐品联合经济订货批量模型   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
针对易腐品供应链的联合库存决策问题展开研究.假设供应链内存在唯一的供应商和零售商,供应商提供商业信用期给零售商,但零售商需要在收到订货后,立即交付部分货款,且零售阶段由于条件限制,产品存在常数腐败率,而联合决策模型的目标是确定供应商的订货量乘数n和零售商的订货周期使得供应链的总成本最低.通过建立该问题的数学模型,证明了目标函数的性质,说明当给定n时,目标函数在每种情况下都存在唯一最优解.以此为基础,给出了相应的求解算法对该联合批量决策模型进行了求解.最后,结合运作管理实践,并通过数值算例说明了模型的有效性.  相似文献   

6.
在随机需求和技术变革的环境下,基于有产能约束的单供应商-单零售商的供应链结构,研究供应商分销价格决策和技术创新策略以及零售商订货决策。建立了三阶段Stackelberg博弈模型,通过逆推方法求得了供应商最优分销价格和技术创新策略以及零售商最优订货量,深入探讨了供应商产能、新技术出现概率以及市场需求期望与波动分别对供应商、零售商和供应链整体利润的影响。结果表明当供应商产能不足时进行技术创新会提高供应商和供应链的利润,但零售商因间接承担供应商技术创新的投资成本而利润下降;当供应商产能过剩时进行技术创新则会降低供应商及供应链的利润,而零售商的利润增加。新技术出现概率增加会提高供应链各成员的利润;提高市场需求期望并减小市场波动对供应商及供应链有利,但可能会降低零售商的利润。  相似文献   

7.
有供应方限制的临时价格折扣与最优存贮模型   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
供应方提供临时价格折扣,一般都附带特别定货量限制。购买方可在所提供折扣价格条件下从有限种订货量中选择最小的订货量,但不一定是最优订货量。本文提出有供应方限制的临时价格折扣条件下的最优存贮模型和订货策略。并给出应用实例。  相似文献   

8.
假定需求服从随机分布,研究由零售商主导的供应链中,采用一个战略供应商和一个备份供应商模式,零售商与备份供应商通过能力期权建立订货契约:首先,零售商向备份供应商预订能力,支付预订成本;接着,向战略供应商订货,如果没有发生突发事件则其供货量等于订货量,否则供货量变为零;然后,零售商基于战略供应商的供货量和备份供应商的能力预订确定向备份供应商的订货量,支付执行成本;最后,零售商用战略供应商和备份供应商的总供货量满足顾客需求。备份供应商在考虑自己的能力维持成本和制造成本后决定是否接受零售商提供的能力期权契约。针对零售商可选择的四种不同策略,求得采取不用策略所满足的条件,并给出相应的最优订货量、能力预订量和能力执行量和最优利润等的解析解。  相似文献   

9.
本文采用定期库存控制策略研究了需求服从均匀分布、订货周期与再制造周期不相等情况下的含有管理复原退货物流的库存问题。在考虑退货价格对需求的影响的情况下,本文建立了以使期望利润最大化为目标,对退货价格、订货量、订货周期和再制造周期进行同时进行决策的库存模型。本文通过数值算例分析了退货价格对需求的影响因子的大小以及退货率的大小分别对利润、最优退货价、最优订货量、最优订货周期和最优退货处理周期的影响。结果指出,商家在制订库存策略时应该考虑退货价对需求的影响,并且应首先确定退货率和退货价对需求影响因子的大小。  相似文献   

10.
考虑需求率变化与延期支付的临时订货模型   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
供应商给予临时价格折扣、并针对采购商的临时订货给予优惠的延期支付条件;同时考虑到采购商的自身需求即为终端需求并对价格敏感,由于考虑需求量变化的同时考虑到时间因素,因此需求率实际上发生了改变。在这样的背景下,采购商在价格变化时刻面临两种选择:以低价购进大量货物或者放弃这个机会。本文以EOQ模型单位产品成本为参考,从成本节约最大的角度出发,分析了采购商临时订货量的确定过程,并用数例分析了参数变化对最优订货以及成本节约情况的影响。  相似文献   

11.
We study a single-item periodic-review model for the joint pricing and inventory replenishment problem with returns and expediting. Demand in consecutive periods are independent random variables and their distributions are price sensitive. At the end of each period, after the demand is realized, a buyer can return excess stocks to a supplier. Or, if there are stockouts, the buyer can place an expediting order at the supplier to reduce the amount of shortage. Unfilled demands are fully backlogged. We characterize the optimal dynamic policy that determines the pricing, inventory replenishment, and adjustment decisions in each period so that the total expected discounted profit is maximized. For a very general stochastic demand function, we can show that the optimal replenishment policy is a modified base-stock policy, the optimal pricing policy is a modified base-stock-list-price policy, and the optimal policy for inventory adjustment follows a dual-threshold policy. We further study the operational effect of returns and expediting. Analytical and numerical results demonstrate that returns and expediting lead to a significant profit increase in a number of situations, including limited supply capacity, sufficient flexibility of the expediting order, high demand uncertainty, and a price-sensitive market.  相似文献   

12.
带有固定保质期物品的订货是供应链终端销售系统的一个重要决策问题,假设需求依赖库存展示水平并考虑"后进先出"的销售策略而建立了相应的库存决策模型,其中物品在固定保质期内仍具有常数的变质速率.然后以系统平均利润最大化为目标讨论了模型最优解的存在性及唯一性,并提供了寻求模型整体最优解的简单方法.最后给出应用实例,并分析了模型参数变化对最优订货策略的影响.  相似文献   

13.
In this paper, we use reinforcement learning (RL) techniques to determine dynamic prices in an electronic monopolistic retail market. The market that we consider consists of two natural segments of customers, captives and shoppers. Captives are mature, loyal buyers whereas the shoppers are more price sensitive and are attracted by sales promotions and volume discounts. The seller is the learning agent in the system and uses RL to learn from the environment. Under (reasonable) assumptions about the arrival process of customers, inventory replenishment policy, and replenishment lead time distribution, the system becomes a Markov decision process thus enabling the use of a wide spectrum of learning algorithms. In this paper, we use the Q-learning algorithm for RL to arrive at optimal dynamic prices that optimize the seller’s performance metric (either long term discounted profit or long run average profit per unit time). Our model and methodology can also be used to compute optimal reorder quantity and optimal reorder point for the inventory policy followed by the seller and to compute the optimal volume discounts to be offered to the shoppers.  相似文献   

14.
A single item economic order quantity model is considered in which the demand is stock dependent. After a certain time the product starts to deteriorate and due to visualization effect and other aspects of deterioration the demand becomes constant. In that situation a discount on selling price provides significant increment in demand rate. In this paper we investigate how much discount on selling price may be given during deterioration to maximize the profit per unit time and whether a pre-deterioration discount affects the unit profit or not. A mathematical model is developed incorporating both pre- and post deterioration discounts on unit selling price, where analytical results reveal some important characteristics of discount structure. A numerical example is presented and sensitivity analysis of the model is carried out.  相似文献   

15.
In this paper, an integrated inventory model for a supply chain comprising of single buyer and single supplier is studied when demand is stock-dependent and units in inventory deteriorate at a constant rate. The total cost of the integrated system consists of the transportation cost, inspection cost and the cost of less flexibility under the assumption of JIT deliveries. The total integrated cost of single-supplier and single-buyer is minimized with respect to number of inspections and deliveries, the cycle time of deliveries and the delivery size for the replenishment time. A numerical example is given to validate the model. The sensitivity analysis carried out suggests that the unit inspection cost, deterioration rate of units in inventory and stock-dependent parameter are the critical factors.  相似文献   

16.
This paper investigates a deterministic inventory model in which demand follows a seasonal pattern that repeats itself after a short time interval. An algorithm is developed for determining an optimal replenishment cycle, a shortage length and an order quantity such that the total profit per unit time is maximized.  相似文献   

17.
成诚  左传  王宜举 《运筹学学报》2018,22(2):139-156
针对供应商提供短期价格折扣且允许零售商两次特殊补货的库存系统, 建立了以零售商库存效益最大化为目标的库存决策模型, 分析了模型的性质, 根据经济订单批量补货决策下补货时间点与折扣时段的关系, 确定了零售商在不同补货策略下的库存效益增值函数. 据此给出零售商相应的最优补货策略函数表达式, 提出了该模型的一个全局优化算法, 并通过数值算例验证了模型和算法的有效性与可行性.  相似文献   

18.
In this paper, a deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items with price-dependent demand is developed. The demand and deterioration rates are continuous and differentiable function of price and time, respectively. In addition, we allow for shortages and the unsatisfied demand is partially backlogged at a negative exponential rate with the waiting time. Under these assumptions, for any given selling price, we first develop the criterion for the optimal solution for the replenishment schedule, and prove that the optimal replenishment policy not only exists but also is unique. If the criterion is not satisfied, the inventory system should not be operated. Next, we show that the total profit per unit time is a concave function of price when the replenishment schedule is given. We then provide a simple algorithm to find the optimal selling price and replenishment schedule for the proposed model. Finally, we use numerical examples to illustrate the algorithm.  相似文献   

19.
赵玲  刘志学 《运筹与管理》2022,31(6):105-110
为了吸引更多顾客,许多电子商务零售商允许顾客在一定时间内退货,导致其利润明显减少。同时,在补货时不仅产生依赖补货量的变动成本,而且会产生与补货量无关的固定成本。基于此,以最大化电子商务零售商的利润为目标,建立考虑顾客退货和固定成本的联合补货与定价模型,其中顾客的退货量与满足的需求呈正比。在一般需求情形下,部分刻画多期问题的最优策略;在特殊需求情形下,证明(s,S,p)策略对单期问题最优,并对多期问题的最优策略进行严格刻画。根据已有刻画为多期问题构造启发式策略。数值结果表明启发式策略近似最优;当初始库存水平足够高/低时,最优补货水平和定价随退货率与固定成本单调变化。关键词:联合补货与定价模型;顾客退货;固定成本;随机动态规划;最优策略  相似文献   

20.
探讨了需求对时间和价格敏感产品的最优动态定价和订购策略,建立了使零售商利润最大化的库存模型.然后对模型的性质进行了分析,给出了一个寻找最优价格调整次数的算法和数值例子,得到一些有意义的管理经验.  相似文献   

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