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Level and Center Frequency of the Singer's Formant   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Johan Sundberg   《Journal of Voice》2001,15(2):176-186
The "singer's formant" is a prominent spectrum envelope peak near 3 kHz, typically found in voiced sounds produced by classical operatic singers. According to previous research, it is mainly a resonatory phenomenon produced by a clustering of formants 3, 4, and 5. Its level relative to the first formant peak varies depending on vowel, vocal loudness, and other factors. Its dependence on vowel formant frequencies is examined. Applying the acoustic theory of voice production, the level difference between the first and third formant is calulated for some standard vowels. The difference between observed and calculated levels is determined for various voices. It is found to vary considerably more between vowels sung by professional singers than by untrained voices. The center frequency of the singer's formant as determined from long-term spectrum analysis of commercial recordings is found to increase slightly with the pitch range of the voice classification.  相似文献
2.
Changes in mean fundamental frequency accompanying changes in loudness of phonation are analyzed in 9 professional singers, 9 nonsingers, and 10 male and 10 female patients suffering from vocal functional dysfunction. The subjects read discursive texts with noise in earphones, and some also at voluntarily varied vocal loudness. The healthy subjects phonated as softly and as loudly as possible at various fundamental frequencies throughout their pitch ranges, and the resulting mean phonetograms are compared. Mean pitch was found to increase by about half-semitones per decibel sound level. Grossly, the subject groups gave similar results, although the singers changed voice pitch more than the nonsingers. The voice pitch changes may be explained as passive results of changes of subglottal pressure required for the sound level variation.  相似文献
3.
This article describes experiments carried out in order to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying variation of vocal loudness in singers. Ten singers, two of whom are famous professional opera tenor soloists, phonated at different pitches and different loudnesses. Their voice source characteristics were analyzed by inverse filtering the oral airflow signal. It was found that the main physiological variable underlying loudness variation is subglottal pressure (Ps). The voice source property determining most of the loudness variation is the amplitude of the negative peak of the differentiated flow signal, as predicted by previous research. Increases in this amplitude are achieved by (a) increasing the pulse amplitude of the flow waveform; (b) moving the moment of vocal fold contact earlier in time, closer to the center of the pulse; and (c) skewing the pulses. The last mentioned alternative seems dependent on both Ps and the ratio between the fundamental frequency and the first formant. On the average, the singers doubled Ps when they increased fundamental frequency by one octave, and a doubling of the excess Ps over threshold caused the sound pressure level (SPL) to increase by 8–9 dB for neutral phonation, less if mode of phonation was changed to pressed. A shift of mode of phonation from flow over neutral to pressed was associated with a reduction of the peak glottal permittance i.e., the ratio between peak transglottal airflow to Ps. Flow phonation had the most favorable relationship between Ps and SPL.  相似文献
4.
Phonation threshold pressure has been defined as the minimum subglottalpressure to generate phonation. Previous research has indicated that children may habitually employ higher subglottal pressures than adults. In the present investigation sound pressure level (SPL) and subglottal pressures at different pitch levels were measured at and above phonation threshold in nine children. Phonation threshold values were scattered in reasonable agreement with Titzes' prediction, although a discrepancy was noted regarding the frequency dependence in some voices. At normal conversational loudness and loudest level of phonation the children's PS values were between two to four and four to eight times the predicted threshold values, respectively. At normal conversational loudness and habitual pitch subglottal pressures were lower than those previously observed for children, but similar to those found for female adults. The SPL in softest and loudest phonation were somewhat lower as compared to previous phonetogram data for children and for female adults. At normal loudness and habitual pitch the SPL values were similar to those of female adults. For a doubling of Ps mean SPL increased by 10.5 dB on the average.  相似文献
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