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1.
In this paper, the mechanism for fluid flow at low velocity in a porous medium is analyzed based on plastic flow of oil in a reservoir and the fractal approach. The analytical expressions for flow rate and velocity of non-Newtonian fluid flow in the low permeability porous medium are derived, and the threshold pressure gradient (TPG) is also obtained. It is notable that the TPG (J) and permeability (K) of the porous medium analytically exhibit the scaling behavior J ~ K-D'r/(l+Or), where DT is the fractal dimension for tortuous capillaries. The fractal characteristics of tortuosity for capillaries should be considered in analysis of non-Darcy flow in a low permeability porous medium. The model predictions of TPG show good agreement with those obtained by the available expression and experimental data. The proposed model may be conducible to a better understanding of the mechanism for nonlinear flow in the low permeability porous medium.  相似文献
2.
特低渗透油藏面积井网见水时间计算   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
特低渗透油藏在水驱开发过程中常表现出渗透率各向异性和流体非达西渗流特征,运用非达西渗流公式及流线积分法,得到特低渗透油藏五点井网、反九点井网和菱形反九点井网在油水两相非活塞式驱替条件下的油井见水时间。计算长庆鄂尔多斯盆地某特低渗透油藏井网见水时间,结果与实际动态符合较好。分析油水黏度比、渗透率各向异性及启动压力梯度对油井见水时间的影响,结果表明:油水黏度比越大,油井的见水时间越早;当菱形反九点井网长轴方向井距与短轴方向井距之比与渗透率各向异性强度大致相等时,长轴方向与短轴方向上的角井能实现均衡驱替;启动压力梯度延缓了油井的见水时间,且生产井距越大,启动压力梯度的影响越显著。  相似文献
3.
Although the problem of vocal fatigue is not uncommon in people with voice disorders, research on objective quantifiable indicators of vocal fatigue is limited. It has been suggested that a speaker's perception of increased phonatory effort associated with periods of prolonged voice use is related to increased lung pressure required to initiate and sustain phonation. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among perceived phonatory effort (PPE), which was used as a subjective index of vocal fatigue, and phonation threshold pressure (PTP), a quantifiable measure defined as the minimal lung pressure required to initiate and sustain vocal fold oscillation. PTP and PPE were recorded before, during, and after five adult male and five adult female speakers engaged in a prolonged oral reading task designed to induce vocal fatigue. The results supported a direct, moderately strong relationship between PTP and PPE, particularly when PTP was measured during speech produced at comfortable and low-speaking pitch levels. No gender effects were found. PTP returned to baseline levels within 1 hour after the fatiguing task. PPE returned to baseline within 1 day. The data support the use of PTP as an objective index of vocal fatigue.  相似文献
4.
The effect of auditory feedback on phonation threshold pressure (Pth) measurement was investigated in 14 females with normal, untrained voices. Two measurement systems (Glottal Enterprises MS 100--circumferentially vented mask and Kay Elemetrics Aerophone II--non-circumferentially vented mask) were examined under three conditions: (1) masked, (2) no mask, and (3) masked with enhanced auditory feedback-acoustic signal placed at ears through headphones. Masked with enhanced auditory feedback, in addition to subject training, significantly lowered Pth values regardless of mask design. The amount of auditory feedback provided by different mask designs was investigated and revealed a significant difference. Clinical significance of different auditory feedback levels provided by the two mask designs was investigated. Direct comparison of the mean values between systems was not possible because of each system's design and calibration. Comparisons were accomplished by subtracting means of select-paired conditions (masked/no mask; masked/masked plus masked with enhanced auditory feedback) within each system and then comparing these difference scores from the same paired conditions between each system. No clinical significance in difference scores was revealed because of varying amounts of auditory feedback provided by the masks. Results support the use of enhanced auditory feedback, in addition to subject training, when measuring Pth.  相似文献
5.
Voice disorders, specifically vocal fatigue, are more commonly reported by women than by men. Previously, 4 women with normal untrained voices read loudly for 2 hours in an attempt to fatigue the voice. Vocal function deteriorated, as indicated by increases in phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and self-perceived phonatory effort. The increase in PTP was delayed or attenuated to some degree in 3 of the women when they drank ample amounts of water before the experiment. The current study examined the same vocal-loading task and water-drinking condition in 4 vocally normal men. PTP increased after the loud-reading task. Although 2 of the men appeared to benefit from increased systemic hydration (PTP increased more when they were underhydrated than well-hydrated), the other 2 men's data changed in the opposite direction. Phonatory effort correlated well with PTP; this varied across subject and pitch. Laryngeal endoscopy revealed an anterior glottal gap in two men after the loud-reading task. Amplitude of vocal fold vibration was judged to be reduced after the loud-reading task in three subjects when underhydrated and one subject when well hydrated. The high between-subject variability prohibits a conclusion that drinking water is beneficial to vocal function in men, but all subjects studied to date demonstrated detrimental vocal effects of prolonged loud talking.  相似文献
6.
Clinicians frequently offer advice to performers and voice-disordered patients aimed ostensibly to manipulate the water content and/or viscosity of the mucus blanket covering the vocal folds. To evaluate the relative effects of three potential laryngeal lubricants on phonatory function (ie, water, Mannitol--an osmotic agent, and Entertainer's Secret Throat Relief (Kli Corp., Carmel, IN)--a glycerin-based product), phonation threshold pressure (PTP) was measured in 18 healthy, vocally normal female participants twice before (baseline) and then four times after 2 ml of each substance were nebulized. PTP is the minimum subglottal pressure required to initiate vocal fold oscillation, and the lowering of PTP is assumed to correspond to physiologically more efficient phonation and reduced phonatory effort. Over a 3-week period, participants were tested on three separate occasions (at 1-week intervals). On each occasion, a different nebulized treatment was administered. PTP for both comfortable and high fundamental frequency productions was measured using an oral pressure-flow system (Perci-Sars, MicroTronics Corp., Chapel Hill, NC). Analysis of the results revealed that Mannitol, an agent that encourages osmotic water flux to the luminal airway surface, lowered PTP immediately after its administration (ie, p = 0.071, for high-pitched productions only). However, the duration of its PTP lowering effect was less than 20 minutes. The other two substances did not demonstrate any significant postadministration effect on PTP.  相似文献
7.
The relationship of lung pressure, fundamental frequency, peak airflow, open quotient, and maximal flow declination rate to vocal intensity for a normal speaking, young male control group and an elderly male group was investigated. The control group consisted of 17 healthy male subjects with a mean age of 30 years and the elderly group consisted of 11 healthy male subjects with a mean age of 77 years. Data were collected at three levels of vocal intensity: soft, comfortable, and loud, corresponding to 25%, 50%, and 75% of dynamic range, respectively. Phonational threshold pressure and lung pressure were obtained using the intraoral technique. The oral airflow waveform was inverse filtered to provide an approximation to the glottal airflow waveform from which measures of fundamental frequency, peak airflow, open quotient, and maximal flow declination rate were determined. Excess lung pressure was calculated as lung pressure minus estimated phonational threshold pressure. The results show for both groups an increase in sound pressure level across the conditions, with corresponding increases in lung pressure, excess lung pressure, fundamental frequency, peak airflow, and maximal flow declination rate. Open quotient decreased with increasing vocal intensity. Lung pressure, sound pressure level, and peak airflow were all found to be significantly greater for the control group than for the elderly group at each condition. Open quotient was found to be significantly lower in the control group than in the elderly group at each condition. No significant difference was observed for excess lung pressure, phonational threshold pressure, fundamental frequency, or maximal flow declination rate between the two groups. These results show that a difference in vocal intensity does exist between young and elderly voices and that this difference is the result of differences in lung pressure, peak airflow, and open quotient.  相似文献
8.
Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), effort for speaking, and vibratory closure pattern were assessed in 4 women with normal untrained voices after 2 hours of loud reading. PTP generally increased after this vocally fatiguing task at conversational pitch and 10%, 50%, and especially 80% of the pitch range. Increased systemic hydration by drinking water appeared to attenuate and/or delay the elevation of PTP for 3 subjects, at least at the highest pitch tested. Effort for speaking increased consistently throughout the loud reading task and subsequently decreased after 15 minutes of vocal silence. Upon videostroboscopic examination of the larynx, 3 subjects demonstrated spindle-shaped vibratory closure patterns on occasion after loud reading. The results provide preliminary support for increasing water consumption to reduce or delay some vocal-function changes after prolonged loud phonation in untrained speakers.  相似文献
9.
Experiments using excised canine larynges were conducted to study the restoration of vocal efficiency in dehydrated larynges. Excised larynges were dehydrated with warm, dry air to the point that airflow through the approximated vocal folds would not entrain the folds to produce phonation. The dehydrated vocal folds were then bathed in a saline solution. The rehydrated larynges were then remounted on the bench apparatus that enabled phonation with a constant humidified airflow, and measurements were made of phonation threshold pressure, glottal airflow, and amplitude. Hydration resulted in significantly increased efficiency and decrease in phonation threshold pressure. The findings confirm clinical impressions that hydration is critical in the physiology of normal phonation.  相似文献
10.
Most singers prefer to warm up their voices before performing. Although the subjective effect is often considerable, the underlying physiological effects are largely unknown. Because warm-up tends to increase blood flow in muscles, it seems likely that vocal warm-up might induce decreased viscosity in the vocal folds. According to the theory of vocal-fold vibration, such a decrease should lead to a lower phonation threshold pressure. In this investigation the effect of vocal warm-up on the phonation threshold pressure was examined in a group of male and female singers. The effect varied considerably between subjects, presumably because the vocal-fold viscosity was not a dominating factor for the phonation-threshold pressure.  相似文献
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