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用声波扩散改善清洗场中(小功率)声场的均匀性   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
本文使用亚甲基蓝水溶液经超声辐照,在铜版纸上真实记录了声场分布,实验中,通过设计新的清洗槽,达到改善声场分布的目的,实验结果表明,声场分布与容器的形状有关,同时也表明了扩散场比驻波场具有利于超声清洗。  相似文献
2.
外加电场对光折变高阶响应影响的微扰分析   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
周忠祥  万秋玉 《光学学报》1997,17(6):10-716
应用微扰展开法了“跳跃模型”给出了空间电荷场前三阶分量随时间,外加电场等变化的解析表达式,同时讨论了外加电场对各阶空间电荷场建立的影响,当扩散与外加电场可比拟时,外加电场对空间电荷场的影响不大,随着空间电荷场阶数的提高,其达到最大饱和值所需的外加电磁越小,在外加电场作用下,空间电荷场各阶分量随时间呈振荡衰减,直到达到饱和,外加是场越大,振荡越强烈,周期越短,在考虑高阶分量的贡献后,空间电荷场的振荡  相似文献
3.
Performance of a noise barrier within an enclosed space   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The present study involved experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of the insertion loss provided by rigid noise barriers in an enclosed space. The existing classical diffuse-field theory may be unable to predict the actual sound pressure level distribution and barrier insertion loss for indoor applications. Although predictions made by the ray tracing method at high frequencies are reasonably satisfactory, the method is computer-intensive and time-consuming. We propose a new formula that incorporates the effects of diffraction theory and the reflection of sound between room surfaces. Our results indicate that the present formula provides more realistic and practical predictions of the barrier insertion loss than existing approaches.  相似文献
4.
An in situ measurement method is proposed for obtaining the normal surface impedance and absorption coefficient of porous materials using two microphones located close to the material without a specific sound source such as a loudspeaker. Ambient environmental noise that does not excite distinct modes in the sound field is employed as the sound source. Measurements of the normal surface impedance of glass wool and rockwool have been made using this method in various sound fields. The repeatability and wide applicability of the method are demonstrated by comparing results of measurements in one room with different noise conditions and in three other environments (corridor, cafeteria and terrace). The assumed diffuse nature of the sound field on the material is validated by using absorption characteristics obtained experimentally at oblique incidence. This method allows simple and efficient in situ measurements of absorption characteristics of materials in a diffuse field.  相似文献
5.
Necessary conditions for measuring intracrystalline diffusion in small crystal size systems via field-gradient NMR are discussed. As an illustrative case self-diffusion coefficients of water adsorbed in NaA zeolites (average crystal diameter about 1 μm) have been measured by 1H-NMR stimulated echoes in static magnetic field gradients of up to 180 T/m in the temperature range of 254–344 K. Obtaining intracrystalline diffusion coefficients necessitates a sufficiently high spatial resolution only provided by such large field gradients.  相似文献
6.
For a liquid sample with unrestricted diffusion in a constant magnetic field gradient g, the increase R in R2=1/T2 for CPMG measurements is 1/3(taugammag)2D, where gamma is magnetogyric ratio, tau is the half the echo spacing TE, and D is the diffusion constant. For measurements on samples of porous media with pore fluids and without externally applied gradients there may still be significant pore-scale local inhomogeneous fields due to susceptibility differences, whose contributions to R2 depend on tau. Here, diffusion is not unrestricted nor is the field gradient constant. One class of approaches to this problem is to use an "effective gradient" or some kind of average gradient. Then, R2 is often plotted against tau2, with the effective gradient determined from the slope of some of the early points. In many cases, a replot of R2 against tau instead of tau2 shows a substantial straight-line interval, often including the earliest available points. In earlier work [G.C. Borgia, R.J.S. Brown, P. Fantazzini, Phys. Rev. E 51 (1995) 2104; R.J.S. Brown, P. Fantazzini, Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 14823] these features were noted, and attention was called to the fact that very large changes in field and gradient are likely for a small part of the pore fluid over distances very much smaller than pore dimensions. A truncated Cauchy-Lorentz (C-L) distribution of local fields in the pore space was used to explain observations, giving reduced effects of diffusion because of the averaging properties of the C-L distribution, the truncation being at approximately +/-1/2chiB0, where chi is the susceptibility difference. It was also noted that, when there is a narrow range of pore size a, over a range of about 40 of the parameter xi=1/3chinua2/D, where nu is the frequency, R2 does not depend much on pore size a nor on diffusion constant D. Examples are shown where plots of R2 vs tau show better linear fits to the data for small tau values than do plots vs tau2. The present work shows that, if both grain-scale and sample-scale gradients are present for samples with narrow ranges of T2, it may be possible to identify the separate effects with the linear and quadratic coefficients in a second-order polynomial fit to the early data points. Of course, many porous media have wide pore size and T2 distributions and hence wide ranges of xi. For some of these wide distributions we have plotted R2 vs tau for signal percentiles, normalized to total signal for shortest tau, again showing initially linear tau-dependence even when available data do not cover the longest and/or shortest T2 values for alltau values. For the examples presented, both the intercepts and the initial slopes of the plots of R2 vs tau increase systematically with signal percentile, starting at smallest R2.  相似文献
7.
The conductivity and diffusion of a color-charged two-dimensional thermostatted Lorentz gas in a color field is studied by a variety of methods. In this gas, point particles move through a regular triangular array of soft scatterers, where, in the presence of a field, a nonequilibrium stationary state is reached by coupling to a Gaussian thermostat. The zero-field conductivity and diffusion coefficient are computed with equilibrium molecular dynamics dynamics from the Green-Kubo formula and the Einstein relation. Their values are consistent and approach those obtained by Machta and Zwanzig in the limit of hard (disk) scatterers. The field-dependent conductivity is obtained from its constitutive relation, from the coupling constant to the thermostat, and by using the recently derived conjugate pairing rule of Evans, Cohen, and Morriss, from the two maximal Lyapunov exponents of the Lorentz gas in the stationary state. All these methods give consistent results. Finally, elements of the field-dependent diffusion tensor have been computed. At zero field, they are consistent with the zero-field conductivity, but they vanish beyond a critical field strength, suggesting a dynamical phase transition at the critical field; the conductivity appears to remain finite, approaching a constant value for large field strengths.  相似文献
8.
We study a behavior of quantum two-level system, interacting with noisy phase-diffusion field. The dynamics is shown to split into two regimes, determined by the coherence time of the phase-diffusion field. For both regimes we present a model of quantum system behavior and discuss possible applications of the obtained effect for spectroscopy. In particular, the obtained analytical formula for the macroscopic polarization demonstrates that the phase-diffusion field does not affect the absorption line shape, which opens up an intriguing possibility of noisy spectroscopy, based on broadband sources with Lorentzian line shape.  相似文献
9.
The increasing presence of low frequency sources and the lack of acoustic standard measurement procedures make the extension of reverberation time measurements to frequencies below 100 Hz necessary. In typical ordinary rooms with volumes between 30 m3 and 200 m3 the sound field is non-diffuse at such low frequencies, entailing inhomogeneities in space and frequency domains. Presence of standing waves is also the main cause of bad quality of listening in terms of clarity and rumble effects. Since standard measurements according to ISO 3382 fail to achieve accurate and precise values in third octave bands due to non-linear decays caused by room modes, a new approach based on reverberation time measurements of single resonant frequencies (the modal reverberation time) has been introduced. From background theory, due to the intrinsic relation between modal decays and half bandwidth of resonant frequencies, two measurement methods have been proposed together with proper measurement procedures: a direct method based on interrupted source signal method, and an indirect method based on half bandwidth measurements. With microphones placed at corners of rectangular rooms in order to detect all modes and maximize SNRs, different source signals were tested. Anti-resonant sine waves and sweep signal turned out to be the most suitable for direct and indirect measurement methods respectively. From spatial measurements in an empty rectangular test room, comparison between direct and indirect methods showed good and significant agreements. This is the first experimental validation of the relation between resonant half bandwidth and modal reverberation time. Furthermore, comparisons between means and standard deviations of modal reverberation times and standard reverberation times in third octave bands confirm the inadequacy of standard procedure to get accurate and precise values at low frequencies with respect to the modal approach. Modal reverberation time measurements applied to furnished ordinary rooms confirm previous results in the limit of modal sound field: for highly damped modes due to furniture or acoustic treatment, the indirect method is not applicable due to strong suppression of modes and the consequent deviation of the acoustic field from a non-diffuse condition to a damped modal condition, while standard reverberation times align with direct method values. In the future, further investigations will be necessary in different rooms to improve uncertainty evaluation.  相似文献
10.
张海燕  徐梦云  张辉  朱文发  柴晓冬 《物理学报》2018,67(22):224301-224301
利用兰姆波的扩散场信号,实现了距离传感器较近缺陷的全聚焦成像.通过两传感器接收的扩散场全矩阵信号进行互相关,恢复出两传感器之间的格林函数响应,重建新的全矩阵.该重建全矩阵削弱了直接耦合采集响应信号中存在的早期饱和非线性效应信号,恢复了被遮盖的近距离缺陷散射信号.在含缺陷的各向同性铝板中激发兰姆波,重建信号的早期信息与直接俘获信号的后期信息相结合形成混合全矩阵,结合全聚焦成像,优化成像效果.所提方法为薄板类结构中距离传感器较近缺陷的兰姆波无损检测提供了理论指导.  相似文献
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