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1.
The relationships of posterior glottal chink magnitude and nodule size with phonatory flow rate, resistance, and breathiness were investigated in 70 women in a retrospective study. Results demonstrated a strong relationship between chink size airflow, but no relationship between nodule size and airflow. Resistance and nodule size were moderately correlated. Breathiness was not explained by airflow, nodule size, or chink magnitude. Subjects in therapy demonstrated concurrent reductions in airflow and chink size. For the laryngeal magnitude measures, visual-perceptual ratings were compared with computer-based measurements. The discussion includes a critical analysis of measurement methods and directions for future research.  相似文献
2.
Experiments on disordered voice quality with multidimensional scaling (MDS) have resulted in solutions with low R-square and have failed to show consistent dimensions across different listeners. These findings have been suggested to indicate large individual differences in the perception of voice quality. However, these inconsistencies may originate from several factors, including random stimulus selection, instructions that encourage listeners to respond to global difference in pairs of voices, and noisy perceptual data. This experiment used MDS techniques to study individual differences in perception of breathiness. The voices in the experiment were selected to have a relatively wide variation in breathiness but only minimal variation in roughness, strain, and fundamental frequency. Additionally, listeners were instructed specifically to rate similarities in breathiness rather than judging global differences in voices, and several judgments from each listener were averaged to minimize noise in the data. It was hypothesized that these modifications would result in an MDS solution that accounted for greater variance in perceptual data than previously shown. Results show that averaging multiple responses from each listener increased the R-square from 45% to approximately 75%. The poor R-square and large individual differences in voice quality perception observed in past research may have partly resulted from the experimental procedures in previous studies. These findings suggest that individual differences in the perception of voice quality are not as large as previously thought, and a model of voice quality perception for an "average" listener may be a good representation for the general population.  相似文献
3.
Spectral amplitude measures are sensitive to varying degrees of vocal fold adduction in normal speakers. This study examined the applicability of harmonic amplitude differences to adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) in comparison with normal controls. Amplitudes of the first and second harmonics (H1, H2) and of harmonics affiliated with the first, second, and third formants (A1, A2, A3) were obtained from spectra of vowels and /i/ excerpted from connected speech. Results indicated that these measures could be made reliably in ADSD. With the exception of H1(*)-H2(*), harmonic amplitude differences (H1(*)-A1, H1(*)-A2, and H1(*)-A3(*)) exhibited significant negative linear relationships (P < 0.05) with clinical judgments of overall severity. The four harmonic amplitude differences significantly differentiated between pre-BT and post-BT productions (P < 0.05). After treatment, measurements from detected significant differences between ADSD and normal controls (P < 0.05), but measurements from /i/ did not. LTAS analysis of ADSD patients' speech samples proved a good fit with harmonic amplitude difference measures. Harmonic amplitude differences also significantly correlated with perceptual judgments of breathiness and roughness (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate high clinical applicability for harmonic amplitude differences for characterizing phonation in the speech of persons with ADSD, as well as normal speakers, and they suggest promise for future application to other voice pathologies.  相似文献
4.
Despite much research, the relationship between vocal acoustic signals and perceived voice quality is not well understood. The present study used an auditory model proposed by Moore et al10 to study how changes in the acoustic spectrum may relate to changes in perceptual ratings of breathiness. Perceptual ratings of breathiness were obtained using a multidimensional scaling (MDS) design. The stimulus distances on the dominant MDS dimension were correlated with several commonly used acoustic measures for voice quality. These distances were also compared with measures obtained from the output of the auditory model. Results show that the partial loudness of the harmonic energy obtained with the aspiration noise acting as a masker was the most important predictor of perceptual ratings of breathiness. Results also demonstrate that measures obtained from the auditory spectrum were better predictors of perceptual ratings of breathiness than were commonly used acoustic spectral measures.  相似文献
5.
Traditional measures of dysphonia vary in their reliability and in their correlations with perceptions of grade. Measurements of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) have been shown to correlate well with perceptions of breathiness. Because it is a measure of periodicity, CPP should also predict roughness. The ability of CPP and other acoustic measures to predict overall dysphonia and the subcategories of breathiness and roughness in pathological voice samples is explored. Preoperative and postoperative speech samples from 19 patients with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis who underwent operative intervention were analyzed by trained listeners and by measures of smoothed CPP (CPPS), noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR), amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ), relative average perturbation (RAP), and smoothed pitch perturbation quotient (sPPQ). The data were analyzed with bivariate Pearson correlation statistics. Grade of dysphonia and breathiness ratings correlated better with measurements of CPPS than with the other measures. CPPS from samples of connected speech (CPPS-s) best predicted overall dysphonia. None of the measures were useful in predicting roughness.  相似文献
6.
This study was designed to investigate objective voice quality measurements in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) by eliminating intersubject variability. To our knowledge this is the first report objectively analyzing paralytic dysphonia as compared to the same voice before onset of UVFP. The voices of two male subjects were prospectively recorded before and after the onset of iatrogenic UVFP (thoracic surgery).The following acoustic measurements of the vowel /a/ were performed using the CSL and MDVP (Kay Elemetrics): jitter, shimmer, harmonics-to-noise ratio, cepstral peak prominence, the relative energy levels of the first harmonic, the first formant and the third formant, the spectral slope in the low-frequency zone (0-1 kHz and 0-2 kHz), and the relative level of energy above 6 kHz. Distribution of spectral energy was analyzed from a long-term average spectrum of 40 seconds of text. Laryngeal aerodynamic measurements were obtained for one patient before and after onset of paralysis using the Aerophone II (Kay Elemetrics). Pitch and amplitude perturbation increased secondary to UVFP, while the harmonics-to-noise ratio and the cepstral peak prominence decreased. A relative increase in the mid-frequency and high-frequency ranges and a decrease in the low-frequency spectral slope were observed. Mean airflow rate and intraoral pressure increased, and glottal resistance and vocal efficiency decreased secondary to UVFP. The findings of this self-paired study confirm some but not all the results of previous studies. Measures involving the fundamental and the formants did not corroborate previous findings. Further investigation with vocal tract modeling is warranted.  相似文献
7.
Seventeen healthy women, 45 to 61 years old, were examined using videofiberstroboscopy during phonation at three loudness levels. Two phoniatricians evaluated glottal closure using category and ratio scales. Transglottal airflow was studied by inverse filtering of the oral airflow signal recorded in a flow mask (Glottal Enterprises System) during the spoken phrase /ba:pa:pa:pa:p/ at three loudness levels. Subglottal pressure was estimated from the intraoral pressure during p occlusion. Running speech and the repeated /pa:/ syllables were perceptually evaluated by three speech pathologists regarding breathiness, hypo-, and hyperfunction, using continuous scales. Incomplete glottal closure was found in 35 of 46 phonations (76%). The degree of glottal closure increased significantly with raised loudness. Half of the women closed the glottis completely during loud phonation. Posterior glottal chink (PGC) was the most common gap configuration and was found in 28 of 46 phonations (61%). One third of the PGCs were in the cartilaginous glottis (PGCc) only. Two thirds extended into the membranous portion (PGCm); most of these occurred during soft phonation. Peak flow, peak-to-peak (AC) flow, and the maximum rate of change for the flow in the closing phase increased significantly with raised loudness. Minimum flow decreased significantly from normal to loud voice. Breathiness decreased with increased loudness. The results suggest that the incomplete closure patterns PGCc and PGCm during soft phonation ought primarily to be regarded as normal for Swedish women in this age group.  相似文献
8.
The goal of this study was to determine if there are acoustical differences between male and female voices, and if there are, where exactly do these differences lie. Extended speech samples were used. The recorded readings of a text by 31 women and by 24 men were analyzed by means of the Long-term Spectrum (LTAS), extracting the amplitude values (in decibels) at intervals of 160 Hz over a range of 8 kHz. The results showed a significant difference between genders, as well as an interaction of gender and frequency level. The female voice showed greater levels of aspiration noise, located in the spectral regions corresponding to the third formant, which causes the female voice to have a more “breathy” quality than the male voice. The lower spectral tilt in the women's voices is another consequence of this presence of greater aspiration noise.  相似文献
9.
Fundamental frequency (F0) perturbation has been found to be useful as an acoustic correlate of the perception of dysphonia in adult voices. In a previous investigation, we showed that hoarseness in children's voices is a stable concept composed mainly of three predictors: hyperfunction, breathiness, and roughness. In the present investigation, the relation between F0 perturbation and hoarseness as well as its predictors was analyzed in running speech of six children representing different degrees of hoarseness. Two perturbation measures were used: the standard deviation of the distribution of perturbation data and the mean of the absolute value of perturbation. The results revealed no clear relation.  相似文献
10.
This study was designed to investigate how variations in patterns of injection could improve the efficacy of botulinum toxin injections in relieving the symptoms of adductor spasmodic dysphonia. A total of 64 adductor spasmodic dysphonia patients who were injected using indirect laryngoscopic localization (for a total of 426 injections) were analyzed retrospectively using their own subjective data on duration of voice improvement, optimal voice improvement, breathiness side effects, and intervals between treatments. Injection to both the thyroarytenoid (TA) and the lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) simultaneously gave the best voice results; the overall improvement from baseline was the longest lasting, and the period during which the voice was the best was the longest lasting. TA + LCA also gave the shortest duration of undesirable breathiness side effect. On the basis of these data, it seems reasonable to recommend that initial botulinum toxin therapy for adductor spasmodic dysphonia patients should be a single unilateral injection placed strategically at the posterior portion of the TA and directed toward the LCA so that both muscle groups are affected.  相似文献
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