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1.
Materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
One of the advantageous functional properties of Mg alloys (or compounds) is to exhibit the reversible hydriding reaction. In this paper, we present our systematic studies regarding the relationship between nanometer- or atomistic-scale structures and the specific hydriding properties of the Mg-Ni binary system, such as(1) nanostructured (n)-Mg2Ni, (2) a mixture of n-Mg2Ni and amorphous (a)-MgNi,(3) pure a-MgNi, and(4) n-MgNi2. Further studies on(5) an a-MgNi-based system for clarifying the effect of the short-range ordering on the structural and hydriding properties and(6) a MgNi2-based system for synthesizing the new Laves phase structure are also presented. The materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides will provide indispensable knowledge for practically developing the Mg alloys as hydrogen-storage materials. Received: 14 August 2000 / Accepted: 6 November 2000 / Published online: 9 February 2001  相似文献
2.
光系统Ⅱ荧光特性快速扫描成象光谱技术研究   总被引:9,自引:4,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
本文以菠菜(Spinica oleracea L.)叶绿体中的PS颗粒复合物、CP47、CP43和LHC为材料,对其结构和功能关系进行了分析,用扫描成象光谱技术对这四种样品的光谱特性进行了研究,并通过对其荧光发射光谱图象的处理,得到它们的荧光发射光谱曲线.分析结果表明,PS颗粒复合物的荧光发射光谱中心波长在680.1nm,波段的范围较宽;CP43荧光光谱的中心波长位于680nm,并在近红外区观察到振动小峰;CP47荧光光谱的中心波长在691.3nm处;CP47和CP43在短波长区640nm和长波长区720nm附近分别出现肩峰,推测可能是样品中游离的叶绿素a和叶绿素b分子引起;LCH荧光发射光谱的峰值位于678nm,光谱范围为576nm~780nm.  相似文献
3.
Hydrogen storage using carbon adsorbents: past, present and future   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
Interest in hydrogen as a fuel has grown dramatically since 1990, and many advances in hydrogen production and utilization technologies have been made. However, hydrogen storage technologies must be significantly advanced if a hydrogen based energy system, particularly in the transportation sector, is to be established. Hydrogen can be made available on-board vehicles in containers of compressed or liquefied H2, in metal hydrides, via chemical storage or by gas-on-solid adsorption. Although each method possesses desirable characteristics, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. Gas-on-solid adsorption is an inherently safe and potentially high energy density hydrogen storage method that could be extremely energy efficient. Consequently, the hydrogen storage properties of high surface area “activated” carbons have been extensively studied. However, activated carbons are ineffective in storing hydrogen because only a small fraction of the pores in the typically wide pore-size distribution are small enough to interact strongly with hydrogen molecules at room temperatures and moderate pressures. Recently, many new carbon nanostructured absorbents have been produced including graphite nanofibers and carbon multi-wall and single-wall nanotubes. The following review provides a brief history of the hydrogen adsorption studies on activated carbons and comments on the recent experimental and theoretical investigations of the hydrogen adsorption properties of the new nanostructured carbon materials. Received: 16 October 2000 / Accepted: 15 November 2000 / Published online: 9 February 2001  相似文献
4.
内周天线CP43、CP47中β-Car到Chla分子间的能量传递   总被引:7,自引:3,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
采用超快荧光光谱动力学对从菠菜中分离纯化的内周天线CP43、CP47进行研究,获取了它们的动力学三维荧光谱,CP43的荧光光谱范围为640~780nm,最大峰位于680nm处,在该峰值处的荧光寿命约为3.54ns;CP47的荧光光谱范围为630~775nm,最大峰位于691nm处,在该峰值处的荧光寿命约为3.22ns,在CP43和CP47中,Chla分子发射荧光的效率分别约为38.3%和40.6%.依据分子的退激发途径,我们分析认为在CP43、CP47中β-Car→Chla分子的能量传递速率常量分别为9.06×1011s-1,1.3×1012s-1;能量传递效率分别为47.5%、66.5%;并估计β-Car分子与Chla分子外周之间的距离分别为0.110nm、0.085nm.  相似文献
5.
Hydrogen storage in sonicated carbon materials   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
The hydrogen storage in purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphite and diamond powder was investigated at room temperature and ambient pressure. The samples were sonicated in 5 M HNO3 for various periods of time using an ultrasonic probe of the alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The goal of this treatment was to open the carbon nanotubes. The maximum value of overall hydrogen storage was found to be 1.5 wt %, as determined by thermal desorption spectroscopy. The storage capacity increases with sonication time. The sonication treatment introduces particles of the Ti alloy into the samples, as shown by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. All of the hydrogen uptake can be explained by the assumption that the hydrogen is only stored in the Ti-alloy particles. The presence of Ti-alloy particles does not allow the determination of whether a small amount of hydrogen possibly is stored in the SWNTs themselves, and the fraction of nanotubes opened by the sonication treatment is unknown. Received: 18 December 2000 / Accepted: 18 December 2000 / Published online: 9 February 2001  相似文献
6.
A new linear ultrasonic phased array fixed on a cylindrical surface is designed. This kind of the cylindrical phased array can meet the specific requirements of the application in testing pipe quality inside pipes. Using the transducer, we can not only avoid mechanical rotating but also test the quality of any point in a pipe by ultrasonic phase array technology. The focused acoustic field distributions in the axial, radial and tangential directions of the transducer are investigated theoretically by numerical simulation. The energy flux density, the width of the main lobe, the imaging resolution, the grating lobe elimination and other characteristics are analysed. The effect of the focal distance, effective aperture, transducer radius, number of total element, and steering angle on the acoustic field distribution is also studied.thoroughly. Many important results are obtained.  相似文献
7.
Qu J  Zhou T 《Ultrasonics》2003,41(7):561-567
Performances of ultrasonic motor (USM) depend considerably on contact state between stator and rotor. To measure the contact state in a traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM), a special test method is necessary. This paper develops a new method named electric contact method to measure contact state of stator and rotor in traveling wave type USM. The effects of pre-load and exciting voltage (amplitude) of stator on contact state between stator and rotor are studied with this method. By a simulating tester of friction properties of TWUSM, the variations of stalling torque and no-load speed against the pre-load and the exciting voltage have been measured. The relative contact length that describes the contact characteristic of stator and rotor is proposed. The relation between the properties of TWUSM and the contact state of stator and rotor are presented. Additionally, according to a theoretical contact model of stator and rotor in TWUSM, the contact lengths at given conditions are calculated and compared with the experimental results.  相似文献
8.
Chemical nature of phytic acid conversion coating on AZ61 magnesium alloy   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Phytic acid (PA) conversion coating on AZ61 magnesium alloy was prepared by the method of deposition. The influences of pH, time and PA concentration on the formation process, microstructure and properties of the conversion coating were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the microstructure. The chemical nature of conversion coating was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The corrosion resistance was examined by means of potentiodynamic polarization method. The adhesive ability was tested by score experiments. The results showed that the growth and microstructure of the conversion coatings were all obviously affected by pH, time and PA concentration. In 0.5 mg/ml PA solution with a pH of 5, an optimization conversion coating formed after 20 min immersion time by deposition of PA on AZ61 magnesium alloy surface through chelating with Al3+. It made the corrosion potential Ecorr of sample shifted positively about 171 mV than that of the untreated sample, and the adhesive ability reached to Grade 1 (in accordance with GB/T 9286).  相似文献
9.
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to provide an effective method for hemorrhage control of blood vessels in acute animal studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the long-term effects of HIFU-induced hemostasis in punctured arteries. The femoral arteries ( approximately 2mm in diameter) of 25 adult anesthetized rabbits were surgically exposed, and either punctured and treated with HIFU (n=15), served as control (no puncture and no HIFU application: n=7), or were punctured and left untreated (n=3). Treated animals were allowed to recover, and examined and/or sacrificed on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 60 after treatment to obtain ultrasound images and samples of blood and tissue. Hemostasis (arrest of bleeding) was achieved in all 15 of the HIFU-treated arteries. Eleven of the arteries were patent after HIFU treatment, and four arteries were occluded, as determined by Doppler ultrasound. The median HIFU application time to achieve hemostasis was 20s (range 7-55 s) for the patent arteries and 110 s (range 50-134 s) for the occluded arteries. In untreated animals, bleeding had not stopped after 120 s. One of the occluded arteries had reopened by day 14. No immediate or delayed re-bleeding was observed after HIFU treatment. Maximal blood flow velocities were similar in HIFU-treated patent vessels and control vessels. No significant difference in hematocrits was found between HIFU-treated and control groups at different time points after the procedure. Light microscopy observations of the HIFU-treated arteries showed disorganization of adventitia, and coagulation and thinning of the tunica media. The general organization of the adventitia and tunica media recovered to normal appearance within 28 days, with some thinning of the tunica media observed up to day 60. Neointimal hyperplasia was observed on days 14 and 28. The results show that HIFU can produce effective and long-term (up to 60 days) hemostasis of punctured femoral arteries while preserving normal blood flow and vessel wall structure in the majority of vessels.  相似文献
10.
PSⅡ的荧光光谱特性   总被引:5,自引:4,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
采用激励光源为82MHz、514.5nm的皮秒荧光光谱装置对PS颗粒、内周天线CP43、CP47三种样品进行研究,通过探测三种样品的荧光总光谱强度随激光功率的变化,测得PS颗粒样品在激光功率为120mW时,荧光强度趋于饱和;CP43在激光功率为73mW时,荧光趋于饱和,但当激光功率为82mW时,荧光强度有下降趋势;而在激光功率为20~96mW的范围内,CP47的荧光强度与激光功率几乎是线性关系.依据它们的荧光量子产额与激光功率的关系,认为CP47中存在较强的激子效应.几种样品的荧光光谱范围分别为700~780nm(PS颗粒);640~780nm(CP43);630~775nm(CP47).CP43和CP47的最大荧光峰分别为680nm和690nm,荧光寿命分别为3.543ns和3.222ns.在514.5nm激光激发下,CP43和CP47中最先受激发的是β-Car分子,发射荧光的是Chla分子,理论计算认为在CP43和CP47中Chla分子发射荧光的效率分别为38.3%和40.6%.  相似文献
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