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1.
Level and Center Frequency of the Singer's Formant   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Johan Sundberg   《Journal of Voice》2001,15(2):176-186
The "singer's formant" is a prominent spectrum envelope peak near 3 kHz, typically found in voiced sounds produced by classical operatic singers. According to previous research, it is mainly a resonatory phenomenon produced by a clustering of formants 3, 4, and 5. Its level relative to the first formant peak varies depending on vowel, vocal loudness, and other factors. Its dependence on vowel formant frequencies is examined. Applying the acoustic theory of voice production, the level difference between the first and third formant is calulated for some standard vowels. The difference between observed and calculated levels is determined for various voices. It is found to vary considerably more between vowels sung by professional singers than by untrained voices. The center frequency of the singer's formant as determined from long-term spectrum analysis of commercial recordings is found to increase slightly with the pitch range of the voice classification.  相似文献
2.
Effects of Family Therapy on Children's Voices   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The families of nine children with deviant voice qualities were selected for family treatment according to the SYGESTI model. Recordings of the children's speech were made before and after therapy. Perceptual evaluation of their voice quality showed significant improvement in various perceptual parameters after the therapy. Acoustical analysis confirmed changes of voice quality and mean fundamental frequency in speech. The therapy also was found to improve relations between family members, conflict management and other aspects of communication. The results suggest that these children's deviant voices were related to family conditions.  相似文献
3.
SUMMARY: Inverse filtering (IF) is a common method used to estimate the source of voiced speech, the glottal flow. This investigation aims to compare two IF methods: one manual and the other semiautomatic. Glottal flows were estimated from speech pressure waveforms of six female and seven male subjects producing sustained vole /a/ in breathy, normal, and pressed phonation. The closing phase characteristics of the glottal pulse were parameterized using two time-based parameters: the closing quotient (C1Q) and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ). The information given by these two parameters indicates a strong correlation between the two IF methods. The results are encouraging in showing that the parameterization of the voice source in different speech sounds can be performed independently of the technique used for inverse filtering.  相似文献
4.
Research on singers' breathing, phonation and articulation patterns during singing is reviewed and comparisons are made with typical speech patterns. It is found that singers' and nonsingers' use of the voice differ in several respects. The reasons for these differences are discussed and explanations are proposed referring to the special demands raised on singers with respect to economization of vocal effort and flexibility of phonation.  相似文献
5.
Covering the voice near the passaggio is a technique mainly used in male classic Western singing. The purpose is said to be to smooth the register transition and avoid register breaks. The physiological and acoustical differences between open and covered singing near the so-called passaggio were investigated by means of fiberoptics, inverse filtering, and spectral analysis. The study corroborated previous findings that covering physiologically means a widening and lengthening of the pharynx. Acoustically, covering implies a change of formant frequencies, and an elevated sound pressure level of the lowest source spectrum partial, i.e., the fundamental, resulting from an increased transglottal air flow. The findings indicate that covered singing also is associated with larynx lowering. Covered singing near the passaggio shows similarities to so-called phonation, and is probably preferable from the point of view of vocal hygiene.  相似文献
6.
It is sometimes claimed that some singers tune their two lowest formant frequencies to harmonic partials in order to increase the audibility of the voice. Voice acoustics predicts that such tuning of formants should cause vowel quality to change. Using a newly constructed digital singing machine, the authors have explored the perceptual consequences of such tuning. Four different cases were represented, in which the two lowest formant frequencies were either constant or adapted to the fundamental frequency according to either of three different strategies. The resulting voice timbres were judged by an expert panel of singing teachers in a listening test consisting of descending chromatic scales. Constant formant frequencies were clearly preferred, presumably because formant tuning entails formant frequency shifts between adjacent tones so substantial that salient vowel quality shifts occur.  相似文献
7.
Analysis by synthesis is a method that has been successfully applied in many areas of scientific research. In speech research, it has proven to be an excellent tool for identifying perceptually relevant acoustical properties of sounds. This paper reports on some first attempts at synthesizing choir singing, the aim being to elucidate the importance of factors such as the frequency scatter in the fundamental and the formants. The presentation relies heavily on sound examples.  相似文献
8.
Changes in mean fundamental frequency accompanying changes in loudness of phonation are analyzed in 9 professional singers, 9 nonsingers, and 10 male and 10 female patients suffering from vocal functional dysfunction. The subjects read discursive texts with noise in earphones, and some also at voluntarily varied vocal loudness. The healthy subjects phonated as softly and as loudly as possible at various fundamental frequencies throughout their pitch ranges, and the resulting mean phonetograms are compared. Mean pitch was found to increase by about half-semitones per decibel sound level. Grossly, the subject groups gave similar results, although the singers changed voice pitch more than the nonsingers. The voice pitch changes may be explained as passive results of changes of subglottal pressure required for the sound level variation.  相似文献
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